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Genetic analyses of complex traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are facilitated by the availability of unique genetic tools such as chromosome substitution lines and recombinant inbred chromosome lines (RICLs) which allow the effects of genes on a single chromosomes to be studied individually. Chromosome 3A of ‘Wichita’ is known to contain alleles at quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that influence variation in grain yield and agronomic performance traits relative to alleles of ‘Cheyenne’. To determine the number, location, and environmental interactions of genes related to agronomic performance on chromosome 3A, QTL and QTL x environment analyses of 98 RICLs-3A were conducted in seven locations across Nebraska from 1999 through 2001. QTLs were detected for seven of eight agronomic traits measured and generally localized to three regions of chromosome 3A. QTL x environment interactions were detected for some QTLs and these interactions were caused by changes in magnitude and crossover interactions. Major QTLs for kernels per square meter and grain yield were associated within a 5-centimorgan (cM) interval and appeared to represent a single QTL with pleiotropic effects. This particular QTL displayed environmental interactions caused by changes in magnitude, wherein the positive effect of the Wichita QTL allele was larger in higher yielding environments.