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The ability of adenosine, insulin and human acylation-stimulating protein to modify fat synthesis was determined using cultures of fat tissue from steers. Adenosine did not influence fat synthesis. However, acylation stimulating protein and insulin promoted fat synthesis. These observations, coupled with knowledge of how fat synthesis is regulated in other species, justify investigation of whether cattle synthesize acylation-stimulating protein, and how this synthesis is regulated. An understanding of how acylation-stimulating protein production and action is regulated should expose potential places for intervention to manipulate fat synthesis in cattle.