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Pigeons were trained on a zero-delay matching-to-sample procedure during which only three of the four possible stimulus configurations were presented. Subsequently, all birds were exposed to all four configurations as a transfer test. A high degree of negative transfer from the three training configurations was obtained in Experiment 1. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that three-configuration training produced differential position-preference effects. During the transfer test, responding after one sample stimulus was apparently based on position, while responding after the other sample was based on color.