Biological Systems Engineering


Date of this Version



HORTSCIENCE 40(3):808-818.2005.


This research study evaluates the effectiveness of a recently introduced irrigation- plant production system, multipot box system (MPBS), for moderating root zone temperature (RZT) compared with the conventional nursery containers. The study also deals with the development, calibration, and validation of a series of models that can be used to predict maximum (max) and minimum (min) RZTs using commonly available input variables. The Viburnum odoratissimum (Ker.-gawl.) was used as the test plant. Models were calibrated in the fall growing season and validated during the summer. The RZT was used as the dependent variable while the max and min air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) and/or incoming solar radiation (Rs) were used as independent variables. The color of the MPBS had an effect on plant growth. Plants grown in the white MPBS had higher growth indices, shoot and root dry weights, and number of stems as compared with the plants in the blackMPBS orthe conventional (control) system (CS). White MPBS maintained cooler RZTs than the max air temperature during both seasons. Also, white MPBS maintained cooler RZTs than the black MPBS and CS during the two seasons. In both seasons, water temperature in the black MPBS was higher than the temperature in the white MPBS contributing to the high RZTs in the black MPBS. The RZT of the black MPBS and CS exceeded the critical value (40 °C), which is cited in the literatures as negatively impacting root growth, water and nutrient uptake, leaf area, plant survival, root and shoot dry weights, water status, and photosynthesis. The RZT in the CS was above 45°C for most of the summer season and plants were exposed to this extreme temperature for a few hours a day during most of the summer. The white MPBS provided a better environment and enhanced plant growth. For regions where ambient air temperature ranged from 2 to 41 °C, the white MPBS can provide adequate and effective RZT protection for plants grown in No. 1, 3.8-L standard black conventional containers. Predicted RZT values were well correlated with measured values in all systems. Rs did not have an effect on predicting RZTmax in the MPBS treatments. Wind speed did not contribute to predicting RZT in any production systems. The root mean square error between measured and predicted RZT was relatively low ranging from 0.9 to 2.8 °C. Models were able to explain at least 74% of the variability in RZTs using only Tmax, Tmin, and/or Rs. Models developed in this study should be applicable for estimating RZTs when similar management and cultural practices are present. Models of this study are practical, simple, and applicable to predict RZTs where ambient air temperature ranges from 1.9 to 40°C. Model results should not be extrapolated beyond these limits.