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The introduction of new protein-based therapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), MAb-based vaccines, growth factors and plasma proteins implies the need to study, characterize, and purify. The separation step is likely to be a bottleneck and cost-effective technology will be needed to rectify it. The currently prevalent matrices for chromatographic separation of immunoglobulins (Igs) are based on Protein A or its recombinant versions (Protein G). They display excellent selectivity and specificity, but are expensive. A Protein A matrix costs $8,000 to 12,000 per L-resin. The typical production column volume is 100 L. The million-dollar matrix is far more expensive than the production hardware.