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An innovative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) thermocycler capable of performing real-time optical detection is described below. This device utilizes the Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube in a system to efficiently and rapidly cycle three 20 mL samples between the denaturation, annealing, and elon-gation temperatures. The reaction progress is displayed real-time by measuring the size of a fluo-rescent signal emitted by SYBR green/double-stranded DNA complexes. This device can produce significant reaction yields with very small amounts of initial DNA, for example, it can amplify 0.25 fg (,5 copies) of a 96 bp bacteriophage l-DNA fragment 2.731011-fold by performing 45 cycles in less than 12 min. The optical threshold (150% of the baseline intensity) was passed 8 min into the reac-tion at cycle 34. Besides direct applications, the speed and sensitivity of this device enables it to be used as a scientific instrument for basic studies such as PCR assembly and polymerase kinetics.