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The pig’s small intestinal structure and function is altered during the days that follow weaning. As a consequence, the digestive and absorptive capacity of weanling pigs may decrease during this period, and this may be partially responsible for the post-weaning growth lag. Additionally, health benefits may be associated with an improved small intestinal structure and function during the early post-weaning period. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of crystalline glutamine and (or) diet complexity on small intestine villus height and growth performance of 18-day-old pigs. During the 21-day trial, no differences in villus height were observed between pigs fed diets with or without supplemental glutamine or between pigs fed a complex diet or a simple diet. Pigs fed the complex diet had improved (P < 0.01) average daily gain during days 0 to 4, 7 to 14, and 14 to 21. The majority of improvement in average daily gain of pigs fed the complex diet was likely due to the improvement in average daily feed intake; in as much as average daily feed intake was improved (P < 0.05) during days 0 to 4, 4 to 7, 7 to 14, and 14 to 21. Pigs fed the simple diet had improved (P < 0.05) feed efficiency during days 7 to 14 and 14 to 21. Although supplemental glutamine did not improve villus height, it did improve (P < 0.05) feed efficiency during days 14 to 21, regardless of diet complexity. The glutamine-induced improvement in feed efficiency may have been related to other improvements in intestinal structure and function that were not measured in this experiment.