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Limited energy resources in increasingly sophisticated wireless sensor networks (WSNs) call for a comprehensive crosslayer analysis of energy consumption in a multi-hop network. For reliability analysis in such networks, the statistical information about energy consumption and lifetime is required. However, traditional energy analysis approaches only focus on the average energy consumed. In this paper, instead, we provide a stochastic analysis of the energy consumption in a random network environment. Accordingly, a comprehensive cross-layer analysis framework, which employs a stochastic queueing model, is developed. Using this framework, the distribution of energy consumption for nodes in WSNs during a given time period is found. We show that when the time duration is long, the energy consumption asymptotically approaches the Normal distribution. This distribution of energy consumption is then utilized to investigate the distribution of node lifetime and network lifetime. The developed analysis framework is generic and is parameterized for many WSN protocols, including an anycast protocol as a case study. Comprehensive simulations and testbed experiments are provided to validate the developed model. The cross-layer framework is also used to identify relationships between the distribution of energy consumption and network parameters, such as network density, duty cycle, and traffic rate. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive work to investigate probabilistic distribution of energy consumption in WSNs.