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The 7 articles in this special issue address the nature of executive control in young children. Executive control is framed in a developmental context, where the unique aspects of cognition in this age range are considered. The set of articles demonstrates the multidisciplinary approaches to study cognition in young children that includes application of cognitive, neuroscience, and developmental paradigms in typically developing youngsters, as well as those affected by clinical conditions, such as traumatic brain injury, exposure to low levels of lead in the environment, and prematurity. Although much work remains to be done, these study results are illustrative of the dynamic work in this exciting developmental period.