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Ethnic identity, assimilation, and racial attitudes of people of Japanese heritage in the United States and Brazil: A comparative analysis
This study investigates similarities and differences between Japanese Americans and Japanese Brasilians in ethnic identity, retention of Japanese values, conditions of assimilation, perceived feelings of discrimination, attitudes toward other ethnic groups, and other demographic characters. Major concerns are ethnic identity and assimilation. ^ Previous studies of ethnic identity and assimilation suggested varieties of adjustment processes among immigrants. Both the United States and Brasil have similar and yet different historical backgrounds in race and ethnic relations. Historical comparisons of the Japanese migration process and their adjustments to the U.S. and Brasil show some differences. ^ The data for the present study were obtained through a three-stage postal mail survey both in the U.S. and in Brasil. The exact same questions were asked in both countries. The total sample obtained from the U.S. was 433, and the total sample obtained from Brasil was 359. ^ Analysis indicated that Japanese Brasilians maintain a stronger ethnic identity than Japanese Americans. The main factors for this were that Japanese Brasilians indicated less assimilation, and Japanese Brasilians, mothers were more likely to be either Japanese nationals or Japanese Brasilians. Both Japanese Americans and Japanese Brasilians maintained similar Japanese values; however factor analysis indicated that Japanese Brasilians emphasize more behavioral values. ^ Japanese Americans feel more discrimination than Japanese Brasilians. Japanese Brasilians have a more favorable attitude toward Whites and Blacks than do Japanese Americans, but they also indicate some negative attitudes as well, especially toward Blacks. More Japanese Brasilians practiced Japanese customs, reported fluent Japanese usage, and frequently read ethnic newspapers. ^ Case studies suggested that ethnic identity is socially constructed and that identity changes are based on individuals' life experiences and surrounding circumstances, whether they are Japanese Americans or Japanese Brasilians. Further assessment is suggested to determine whether Brasilian social structure and culture have some effects in maintaining stronger ethnic identity among Japanese Brasilians. ^ Further assessment is suggested to determine whether Brasilian social structure and culture have some effects in maintaining stronger ethnic identity among Japanese Brasilians.^
Sociology, Ethnic and Racial Studies
Toyota, Hiroyuki, "Ethnic identity, assimilation, and racial attitudes of people of Japanese heritage in the United States and Brazil: A comparative analysis" (1999). ETD collection for University of Nebraska - Lincoln. AAI9942160.