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The present state-of-the-art provides little information which would lead to the conclusions that animal damage control will take a new direction away from chemicals. Hence, vertebrate pesticides whether toxicants or repellents will remain essential components of integrated pest management programs. The future of vertebrate pesticides is far from being bright, but current developments offer some good reasons to remain optimistic. The various factors which influence the development of new vertebrate pesticides (principally rodenticides) are discussed along with projections of stable as well as changing trends. Speculation on the future of vertebrate pesticides may provide tentative directions for some and forecast pitfalls for others.