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Approximately 10 million people and 100,000 black bears (Ursus americanus) live in Ontario, Canada. The highest concentration of black bears (0.4–0.6 bears/100 km2) is in northern Ontario (Bear Wise 2004). While this area is sparsely populated by humans, it is the site where human–bear conflicts are common for several reasons. These include people spending time in formerly inaccessible areas via forestry roads and off-road vehicle trails, changing recreational patterns, and a growing black bear population (Conover 2008, Madison 2008). Among residents of northern Ontario (hereafter referred to as northerners), no other wildlife management issue has dominated the political discussion more than the 1999 moratorium on the spring black bear hunt (MSBBH).