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Over-abundant light geese are having long-term negative effects on the Arctic tundra ecosystem. Significant damage to native plants, increases in soil degradation and impacts on bird communities are likely to be the main consequences (Batt 1998). The extent of which over-abundant light geese reduce food and cover for other wildlife on wintering grounds and migration routes is not well documented, although anecdotal observations suggest that light geese could compete with wintering waterfowl for food, i.e. Louisiana rice fields (J. L. Curnmings, National Wildlife Research Center, personal observation).