National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


Reprint of: CYP1A protein expression and catalytic activity in double-crested cormorants experimentally exposed to deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon 252 oil, Courtney R. Alexander, Michael J. Hooper, Dave Cacela, Kim D. Smelker, Caleshia S. Calvin, Karen M. Dean, Steve J. Bursian, Fred L. Cunningham, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Katherine E. Horak, John P. Isanhart, Jane Link, Susan A. Shriner, and Céline A.J. Godard-Codding

Novel and current rodenticides for pocket gopher Thomomys spp. management in vineyards: what works?, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, and Gary W. Witmer

Reprint of: Overview of avian toxicity studies for the Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment, S. J. Bursian, C. R. Alexander, D. Cacela, Fred L. Cunningham, K. M. Dean, B. S. Dorr, C. K. Ellis, Céline A.J. Godard-Codding, C. G. Guglielmo, K. C. Hanson-Dorr, K. E. Harr, K. Healy, Michael J. Hooper, K. Horak, John P. Isanhart, L. V. Kennedy, J. E. Link, I. Maggini, J. K. Moye, C. R. Perez, C. A. Pritsos, Susan A. Shriner, K. A. Trust, and P. L. Tuttle

Field-based evaluation of a male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage concentration method, J. C. Chandler; A. Pérez-Méndez; J. Paar, III; M. M. Doolittle; B. Bisha; and L. D. Goodridge

Field-based evaluation of a male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage concentration method, J.C. Chandler; A. Pérez-Méndez; J. Paar, III; M. M. Doolittle; B. Bisha; and L. D. Goodridge

A method for the improved detection of aerosolized influenza viruses and the male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage MS2, J. C. Chandler, J. W. Schaeffer, M. Davidson, S. L. Magzamen, A. Pérez-Méndez, S. J. Reynolds, L. D. Goodridge, J. Volckens, A. B. Franklin, S. A. Shriner, and B. Bisha

Effects of crop type and harvest on nest survival and productivity of dickcissels in semi-natural grasslands, Tara J. Conkling, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, and James A. Martin

Development of methods for avian oil toxicity studies using the double crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), Fred L. Cunningham, Karen Dean, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Kendal Harr, Kate Healy, Katherine Horak, Jane Link, Susan A. Shriner, Steve J. Bursian, and Brian Dorr

Impact of body condition on influenza A virus infection dynamics in mallards following a secondary exposure, Nicholas G. Dannemiller, Colleen T. Webb, Kenneth R. Wilson, Kevin T. Bentler, Nicole L. Mooers, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Alan B. Franklin, and Susan A. Shriner

Estimating population density for disease risk assessment: The importance of understanding the area of influence of traps using wild pigs as an example, Amy J. Davis, Bruce Leland, Michael Bodenchuk, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Kim M. Pepin

Can experience reduce collisions between birds and vehicles?, T. L. DeVault, T. W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, S. L. Lima, M. A. Martinez, and E. Fernandez-Juricic

The Rise of Double-Crested Cormorants, Brian S. Dorr and Dave Fielder

Double-Crested Cormorants: Too Much of a Good Thing?, Brian S. Dorr and David G. Fielder

Control of invasive rats on islands and priorities for future action, Quiterie Duron, Aaron B. Shiels, and Eric Vidal

Use of fecal volatile organic compound analysis to discriminate between nonvaccinated and BCG-Vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Jacek A. Koziel

Inventory of wildlife use of mortality pits as feeding sites: implications of pathogen exposure, Jeremy W. Ellis, Susan A. Shriner, Hailey E. McLean, Lauren Petersen, and J. Jeffrey Root

Management and modeling approaches for controlling raccoon rabies: The road to elimination, Stacey A. Elmore, Richard B. Chipman, Dennis Slate, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Amy T. Gilbert

Prevalence of feral swine disturbance at important archaeological sites over a large landscape in Florida, Richard M. Engeman, Joseph S. Meyer, and John B. Allen

Addressing the Gender Gap in Distinguished Speakers at Professional Ecology Conferences, Cooper M. Farr, Sara P. Bombaci, Travis Gallo, Anna M. Mangan, Hannah L. Riedl, Lani T. Stinson, Kate Wilkins, Drew E. Bennett, Theresa Nogeire-McRae, and Liba Pejchar

Movement of Hypophthalmichthys DNA in the Illinois River Watershed by the Double-Crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), Michael P. Guilfoyle, Heather L. Farrington, Richard F. Lance, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Brian S. Dorr, and Richard A. Fischer

Weathered MC252 crude oil-induced anemia and abnormal erythroid morphology in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) with light microscopic and ultrastructural description of Heinz bodies, K. E. Harr, Fred L. Cunningham, Chris A. Pritsos, Karen L. Pritsos, Thivanka Muthumalage, Brian S. Dorr, Katherine E. Horak, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Karen M. Dean, Dave Cacela, Andrew K. McFadden, Jane E. Link, Katherine A. Healy, Pete Tuttle, and Steven J. Bursian

Organ weights and histopathology of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) dosed orally or dermally with artificially weathered Mississippi Canyon 252 crude oil, K. E. Harr, Drury R. Reavill, Steven J. Bursian, Dave Cacela, Fred L. Cunningham, Karen M. Dean, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Kate Healy, Katherine Horak, Jane E. Link, Susan A. Shriner, and Robert E. Schmidt

Dermal exposure to weathered MC252 crude oil results in echocardiographically identifiable systolic myocardial dysfunction in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), K. E. Harr, M. Rishniw, T. L. Rupp, D. Cacela, K. M. Dean, B. S. Dorr, K. C. Hanson-Dorr, K. Healy, K. Horak, J. E. Link, D. Reavill, S. J. Bursian, and Fred L. Cunningham

Fine-scale assessment of home ranges and activity patterns for resident black vultures (Coragyps atratus) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), Amanda E. Holland, Michael E. Byrne, A. Lawrence Bryan, Travis L. DeVault, Olin E. Rhodes, and James C. Beasley

Picky eaters are rare: DNA-based blood meal analysis of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species from the United States, Matthew W. Hopken, Bonnie M. Ryan, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Bird use of grain fields and implications for habitat management at airports, Raymond B. Iglay, Bruce N. Buckingham, Thomas W. Seamans, James A. Martin, Bradley F. Blackwell, Jerrold L. Belant, and Travis L. DeVault

An evaluation of the use of pentosidine as a biomarker for ageing turtles, John B. Iverson, Randal S. Stahl, Carol Furcolow, and Fred Kraus

Quantifying drivers of wild pig movement across multiple spatial and temporal scales, Shannon L. Kay, Justin W. Fischer, Andrew J. Monaghan, James C. Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Tyler A. Campbell, Susan M. Cooper, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, Steven B. Hartley, John C. Kilgo, Samantha M. Wisely, A. Christy Wyckoff, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Kim M. Pepin

Development of known-fate survival monitoring techniques for juvenile wild pigs (Sus scrofa), David A. Keiter, John C. Kilgo, Mark A. Vukovich, Fred L. Cunningham, and James C. Beasley

Temporal Development of Gut Microbiota in Triclocarban Exposed Pregnant and Neonatal Rats, Rebekah C. Kennedy, Russell R. Fling, Michael S. Robeson, Arnold M. Saxton, Robert L. Donnell, John L. Darcy, David A. Bemis, Jiang Liu, Ling Zhao, and Jiangang CHen

Winter and Summer Home Ranges of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) Captured at Loafing Sites in the Southeastern United States, D. Tommy King, Justin Fischer, Bronson K. Strickland, W. David Walter, Fred L. Cunningham, and Guiwang Wang

Advances and Environmental Conditions of Spring Migration Phenology of American White Pelicans, D. Tommy King, Guiming Wang, Zhiqiang Yang, and Justin W. Fischer

An assessment of radiative heating as a thermal treatment for invasive snakes in cargo, Fred Kraus, Randal Stahl, and William Pitt

Reoccurrence of Avian Influenza A(H5N2) Virus Clade in Wild Birds, Alaska, USA, 2016, Dong-Hun Lee, Mia K. Torchetti, Mary Lea Killian, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and David E. Swayne

Uncovering behavioural states from animal activity and site fidelity patterns, Peter J. Mahoney and Julie K. Young

US feral swine were exposed to both avian and swine influenza A viruses, Brigitte E. Martin, Hailiang Sun, Margaret Carrel, Fred L. Cunningham, John A. Baroch, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Sean G. Young, Brandon Schmit, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Mark W. Lutman, Kerri Pedersen, Kelly Lager, Andrew S. Bowman, Richard D. Slemons, David R. Smith, Thomas J. Deliberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Diversity and phylogenetic relationships among Bartonella strains from Thai bats, Clifton D. McKee, Michael Y. Kosoy, Ying Bai, Lynn M. Osikowicz, Richard Franka, Amy T. Gilbert, Sumalee Boonmar, Charles E. Rupprecht, and Leonard Peruski

Studies of wolf x coyote hybridization via artificial insemination, L. David Mech, Cheryl S. Asa, Margaret Callahan, Bruce W. Christensen, Fran Smith, and Julie K. Young

Cross-species transmission potential between wild pigs, livestock, poultry, wildlife, and humans: implications for disease risk management in North America, Ryan S. Miller, Steven J. Sweeney, Chris Slootmaker, Daniel A. Grear, Paul A. Di Salvo, Deborah Kiser, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Towards Canine Rabies Elimination in Cebu, Philippines: Assessment of Health Economic Data, L. M. Miranda, M. E. Miranda, B. Hatch, R. Deray, S. Shwiff, M. C. Roces, and C. E. Rupprecht

Rabies Virus Antibodies from Oral Vaccination as a Correlate of Protection against Lethal Infection in Wildlife, Susan M. Moore, Amy Gilbert, Ad Vos, Conrad M. Freuling, Christine K. Ellis, Jeannette Kliemt, and Thomas Müller

Functional visual sensitivity to ultraviolet wavelengths in the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), and its influence on foraging substrate selection, Sean T. O'Daniels, Dylan C. Kesler, Jeanne D. Mihail, Elisabeth B. Webb, and Scott J. Werner

Evidence of leptospirosis in the kidneys and serum of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States, K. Pedersen, T. D. Anderson, S. N. Bevins, K. L. Pabilonia, P. N. Whitley, D. R. Virchow, and T. Gidlewski

Predicting spatial spread of rabies in skunk populations using surveillance data reported by the public, Kim M. Pepin, Amy J. Davis, Daniel G. Streicker, Justin W. Fischer, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Amy T. Gilbert

Comment on: ‘Blood does not buy goodwill: allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore’, Kim M. Pepin, Shannon L. Kay, and Amy J. Davis

Comment on: ‘Blood does not buy goodwill: allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore’, Kim M. Pepin, Shannon L. Kay, and Amy J. Davis

Inferring infection hazard in wildlife populations by linking data across individual and population scales, Kim M. Pepin, Shannon L. Kay, Ben D. Golas, Susan S. Shriner, Amy T. Gilbert, Ryan S. Miller, Andrea L. Graham, Steven Riley, Paul C. Cross, Michael D. Samuel, Mevin B. Hooten, Jennifer A. Hoeting, James O. Lloyd-Smith, Colleen T. Webb, and Michael G. Buhnerkempe

Using risk prediction models and species sensitivity maps for large-scale identification of infrastructure-related wildlife protection areas: The case of bird electrocution, Juan Manuel Pérez-García, Travis L. DeVault, Francisco Botella, and José Antonio Sánchez-Zapata

Genetic demography at the leading edge of the distribution of a rabies virus vector, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Amy L. Russell, Ignacio A. Osorio, Alejandro Jiménez Ramírez, Justin W. Fischer, Jennifer L. Neuwald, Annie E. Tibbels, Luis Lecuona, and Gary F. McCracken

Is It Time for Synthetic Biodiversity Conservation?, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Gernot Segelbacher, Philip J. Seddon, Luke Alphey, Elizabeth L. Bennett, Robert H. Carlson, Robert M. Friedman, Dona Kanavy, Ryan Phelan, Kent H. Redford, Marina Rosales, Lydia Slobodian, and Keith Wheeler

Dietary intake of Deepwater Horizon oil-injected live food fish by doublecrested cormorants resulted in oxidative stress, Karen L. Pritsos, Cristina R. Perez, Thivanka Muthumalage, Karen M. Dean, Dave Cacela, K. C. Hanson-Dorr, Fred L. Cunningham, S. J. Bursian, Jane E. Link, Susan A. Shriner, Katherine Horak, and C. A. Pritsos

Differential impacts of wildfire on the population dynamics of an old-forest species, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Alan B. Franklin, and Peter C. Carlson

Transmission of H6N2 wild bird-origin influenza A virus among multiple bird species in a stacked-cage setting, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, Kaci K. VanDalen, and Alan B. Franklin

Clinostomum album n. sp. and Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819), parasites of the great egret Ardea alba L. from Mississippi, USA, Thomas G. Rosser, Neely R. Alberson, Ethan T. Woodyard, Fred L. Cunningham, Linda M. Pote, and Matt J. Griffin

Investigation of techniques to measure cortisol and testosterone concentrations in coyote hair, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Jill M. Mateo, and Rachel M. Santymire

Using species distribution models to define nesting habitat of the eastern metapopulation of double-crested cormorants, Kate L. Sheehan, Samuel T. Esswein, Brian S. Dorr, Greg K. Yarrow, and Ron J. Johnson

The influence of geographical location, host maturity and sex on intestinal helminth communities of the double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus from the eastern United States, K. L. Sheehan, K. C. Hanson-Dorr, Brian S. Dorr, G. K. Yarrow, and R. J. Johnson

Sudden appearance and population outbreak of Eunica monima (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) on Desecheo Island, Puerto Rico, Aaron B. Shiels, William P. Haines, Kirsty J. Swinnerton, Susan Silander, Cielo Figuerola-Hernández, David Will, Juan G. García-Cancel, and Christian W. Torres-Santana

Shifts in an invasive rodent community favoring Black rats (Rattus rattus) following restoration of native forest, Aaron B. Shiels, Arthur Medeiros, and Erica I. von Allmen

Optimization of human, animal, and environmental health by using the One Health approach, Jonathan M. Sleeman, Thomas DeLiberto, and Natalie Nguyen

Different prey resources suggest little competition between non-native frogs and insectivorous birds despite isotopic niche overlap, Robyn L. Smith, Karen H. Beard, and Aaron B. Shiels

Comparison of a Micro-Neutralization Test with the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for Measuring Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibodies, Todd G. Smith and Amy T. Gilbert

Development of Toxic Bait to Control Invasive Wild Pigs and Reduce Damage, Nathan P. Snow, Justin A. Foster, John C. Kinsey, Simon T. Humphrys, Linton D. Staples, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Strength Testing of Raccoons and Invasive Wild Pigs for a Species-Specific Bait Station, Nathan P. Snow, Michael J. Lavelle, Joseph M. Halseth, Chad R. Blass, Justin A. Foster, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Adaptive use of nonlethal strategies for minimizing wolf–sheep conflict in Idaho, Suzanne A. Stone, Stewart W. Breck, Jesse Timberlake, Peter M. Haswell, Fernando Najera, Brian S. Bean, and Daniel J. Thornhill

Anthropogenic factors predict movement of an invasive species, Michael A. Tabak, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Ryan S. Miller, Rick A. Sweitzer, and Holly B. Ernest

Greater Sage-Grouse Nest Survival in Northwestern Wyoming, Jimmy D. Taylor, R. Douglas Holt, Elizabeth K. Orning, and Julie K. Young

Ecological Potential for Rabies Virus Transmission via Scavenging of Dead Bats by Mesocarnivores, Tad C. Theimer, Annie C. Dyer, Brian W. Keeley, Amy T. Gilbert, and David L. Bergman

Den use and heterothermy during winter in free-living, suburban striped skunks, Tad C. Theimer, Cory T. Williams, Shylo R. Johnson, Amy T. Gilbert, David L. Bergman, and C. Loren Buck

The impact of poverty on dog ownership and access to canine rabies vaccination: results from a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey, Uganda 2013, Ryan M. Wallace, Jason Mehal, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Sergio Recuenco, Barnabas Bakamutumaho, Modupe Osinubi, Victor Tugumizemu, Jesse D. Blanton, Amy Gilbert, and Joseph Wamala

Impact locations and damage to civil and military rotary-wing aircraft from wildlife strikes, Brian E. Washburn, Paul Cisar, and Travis L. DeVault

Clearing muddied waters: Capture of environmental DNA from turbid waters, Kelly E. Williams, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Identifying possible alternative rodenticide baits to replace strychnine baits for pocket gophers in California, Gary W. Witmer, Roger A. Baldwin, and Rachael S. Moulton

Identifying possible alternative rodenticide baits to replace strychnine baits for pocket gophers in California, Gary W. Witmer, Roger A. Baldwin, and Rachael S. Moulton

Compromised Fertility In Free Feeding Of Wildcaught Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) With A Liquid Bait Containing 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide And Triptolide, Gary W. Witmer, Stefanie Raymond-Whish, Rachael S. Moulton, Brandy R. Pyzyna, Elissa M. Calloway, Cheryl A. Dyer, Loretta P. Mayer, and Patricia B. Hoyer

Low-Pathogenic Influenza A Viruses in North American Diving Ducks Contribute to the Emergence of a Novel Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H7N8) Virus, Yifei Xu, Andrew M. Ramey, Andrew S. Bowman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Mary L. Killian, Scott Krauss, Jacqueline M. Nolting, Mia Kim Torchetti, Andrew B. Reeves, Richard J. Webby, David E. Stallknecht, and Xiu-Feng Wan

DiazaCon reduces black-tailed prairie dog reproduction in Colorado, Christi A. Yoder, Richard E. Mauldin, James P. Gionfriddo, Kenneth A. Crane, David A. Goldade, and Richard M. Engeman


Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8

Use of claims data to estimate annual cervical cancer screening percentages in Portland metropolitan area, Oregon, Nasreen Abdullah, Robert S. Laing, Susan Hariri, Collette M. Young, and Sean Schafer

Natality of Yearling Coyotes in West Virginia, G. Albers, J. W. Edwards, R. E. Rogers, and L. L. Mastro

Supplementary feeding and endangered avian scavengers: benefits, caveats, and controversies, Ainara Cortés- Avizanda, Guillermo Blanco, Travis L. Devault, Anil Markandya, Munir Z Virani, Joseph Brandt, and José A Donázar

Antigenic Characterization of H3 Subtypes of Avian Influenza A Viruses from North America, Elizabeth Bailey, Li-Ping Long, Nan Zhao, Jeffrey S. Hall, John A. Baroch, Jacqueline Nolting, Lucy Senter, Frederick L. Cunningham, G. Todd Pharr, Larry Hanson, Richard Slemons, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Cholecalciferol plus diphacinone baits for vole control: a novel approach to a historic problem, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, and Gary W. Witmer

Novel and current rodenticides for pocket gopher Thomomys spp. management in vineyards: what works?, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, and Gary W. Witmer

Plant community shifts caused by feral swine rooting devalue Florida rangeland, Brittany Bankovich, Elizabeth Boughton, Raoul Boughton, Michael L. Avery, and Samantha M. Wisely

Bait flavor preference and immunogenicity of ONRAB baits in domestic dogs on the Navajo Nation, Arizona, Are R. Berentsen, Scott Bender, Peggy Bender, David Bergman, Amy T. Gilbert, Hannah M. Rowland, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Widespread detection of highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses in wild birds from the Pacific Flyway of the United States, S. N. Bevins; R. J. Dusek; C. L. White; T. Gidlewski; B. Bodenstein; K. G, Mansfield; P. DeBruyn; D. Kraege; E. Rowan; C. Gillin; B. Thomas; S. Chandler; J. Baroch; B. Schmit; M. J. Grady; R. S. Miller; M. L. Drew; S. Stopak; B. Zscheile; J. Bennett; J. Sengl; Caroline Brady; H. S. Ip; E. Spackman; M. L. Killian; M. K. Torchetti; J. M. Sleeman; and T. J. Deliberto

Effects of visual obstruction, prey resources, and satiety on bird use of simulated airport grasslands, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Kimberly Linnell, Lisa Kutschbach-Brohl, and Travis L. DeVault

Cougar Predation Rates and Prey Composition in the Pryor Mountains of Wyoming and Montana, Linsey W. Blake and Eric M. Gese

Resource Selection by Cougars: Influence of Behavioral State and Season, Linsey W. Blake and Eric M. Gese

Report to the Chicago Park District on Conflicts with Ring-billed Gulls and the 2015 Integrated Ring-billed Gull Damage Management Project, M.L. Bloomquist, J.W. Hartmann, C.K. Pullins, T.G. Guerrant, S.F. Beckerman, and R.M. Engeman

Limited transmission of emergent H7N9 influenza A virus in a simulated live animal market: Do chickens pose the principal transmission threat?, Angela Bosco-Lauth, Richard A. Bowen, and ]. Jeffrey Root

Vertebrate Host Susceptibility to Heartland Virus, Angela M. Bosco-Lauth, Amanda E. Calvert, J. Jeffrey Root, Tom Gidlewski, Brian H. Bird, Richard A. Bowen, Atis Muehlenbachs, Sherif R. Zaki, and Aaron C. Brault

Morphometric Variation during Chick Development in Interior Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), Jennifer E. Chastant, Corey T. Callaghan, and D. Tommy King

New Study Underway to Estimate the Impact of Lesser Scaup on Arkansas’ Baitfish Industry, Stephen Clements, Brian Davis, Brian Dorr, Luke A. Roy, Anita M. Kelly, and Carole R. Engle

Aquaculture Depredation by Double-Crested Cormorants Breeding in Eastern North America, Elizabeth C. Craig, D. Tommy King, Jed P. Sparks, and Paul D. Curtis

Inferring invasive species abundance using removal data from management actions, Amy J. Davis, Mevin B. Hooten, Ryan S. Miller, Matthew L. Farnsworth, Jesse Lewis, Michael Moxcey, and Kim M. Pepin

Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection, Shelagh T. DeLiberto and Scott J. Werner

Tracking a Deadly Virus HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA IN WILD BIRDS, Tom DeLiberto and Gail Keirn

Ecosystem Services Provided by Avian Scavengers, Travis L. DeVault, James C. Beasley, Zachary H. Olson, Marcos Moleón, Martina Carrete, Antoni Margalida, and José Antonio Sánchez-Zapata