National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."

2018

Environmental effects are stronger than human effects on mammalian predator-prey relationships in arid Australian ecosystems, Benjamin L. Allen, Alana Fawcett, Alison Anker, Richard M. Engeman, Allan Lisle, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Monk and Rose-Ringed Parakeets, Michael L. Avery and Aaron B. Shiels

Comparison of mixing methods and associated residual levels of zinc phosphide on cabbage bait for rodent management, Roger A. Baldwin, Benjamin G. Abbo, and David A. Goldade

The elusive search for an effective repellent against voles: an assessment of anthraquinone for citrus crops, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, Gary W. Witmer, and Scott J. Werner

Frogs (Coqui Frogs, Greenhouse Frogs, Cuban Tree Frogs, and Cane Toads), Karen H. Beard, Steve A. Johnson, and Aaron B. Shiels

Research Priorities for Managing Invasive Wild Pigs in North America, James C. Beasley, Stephen S. Ditchkoff, John J. Mayer, Mark D. Smith, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Livestock abundance predicts vampire bat demography, immune profiles and bacterial infection risk, Daniel J. Becker, Gábor Á. Czirják, Dmitriy V. Volokhov, Alexandra B. Bentz, Jorge E. Carrera, Melinda S. Camus, Kristen J. Navara, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, M. Brock Fenton, Nancy B. Simmons, Sergio E. Recuenco, Amy T. Gilbert, Sonia Altizer, and Daniel G. Streicker

BOOK REVIEW, Are R. Berentsen

Seroconversion of Raccoons Following Two Oral Rabies Vaccination Baiting Strategies, Are R. Berentsen, Erin M. Patrick, Chad Blass, Keith Wehner, Brett Dunlap, Bradley Hicks, Robert Hale, Richard B. Chipman, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Ecology of the Small Indian Mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) in North America, Are R. R. Berentsen, William C. Pitt, and Robert T. Sugihara

Is Razor-wire an Effective Deterrent for Birds Perching on Security Fences at Airports?, David L. Bergman and Brian E. Washburn

Management of Wintering Short-eared Owls at Airports in the Lower Great Lakes Region, Aaron Bowden, Robert J. Hromack, Christopher H. Loftis, and Brian E. Washburn

A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks, Vienna R. Brown and Sarah N. Bevins

A Review of Classical Swine Fever virus and Routes of introduction into the United States and the Potential for virus establishment, Vienna R. Brown and Sarah N. Bevins

Resource partitioning between kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) and coyotes (Canis latrans): a comparison of historical and contemporary dietary overlap, P. A. Byerly, R. C. Lonsinger, E. M. Gese, A. J. Kozlowski, and L. P. Waits

Prophage induction reduces Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella enterica on tomatoes and spinach: A model study, Brigitte Cadieux, Anna Colavecchio, Julie Jeukens, Luca Freschi, Jean-Guillaume Emond-Rheault, Irena Kukavica-Ibrulj, Roger C. Levesque, Sakjia Bekal, Jeffrey C. Chandler, Shannon M. Coleman, Bledar Bisha, and Lawrence D. Goodridge

Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by European starlings: Projected effects on dairy cow performance and potential intervention strategies to mitigate damage, James C. Carlson, R. S. Stahl, S. T. DeLiberto, J. J. Wagner, T. E. Engle, R. M. Engeman, C. S. Olson, J. W. Ellis, and S. J. Werner

Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by European starlings: Projected effects on dairy cow performance and potential intervention strategies to mitigate damage, James C. Carlson, R. S. Stahl, S. T. DeLiberto, J. J. Wagner, T. E. Engle, R. M. Engeman, C. S. Olson, J. W. Ellis, and S. J. Werner

Brown Tree Snakes Methods and Approaches for Control, Larry Clark, Craig S. Clark, and Shane Siers

Using Off-the-Shelf Technologies to Mass Manufacture Oral Vaccine Baits for Wildlife, Lucila M. Corro, Daniel W. Tripp, Scott A. Stelting, and Michael W. Miller

Quantifying site-level usage and certainty of absence for an invasive species through occupancy analysis of camera-trap data, Amy J. Davis, Ryan McCreary, Jeremiah Psiropoulos, Gary Brennan, Terry Cox, Andrew Partin, and Kim M. Pepin

Effects of immunization against bone morphogenetic protein-15 and growth differentiation factor-9 on ovarian function in mares, Kelli A. Davis, Kristin M. Klohonatz, Darcy S.O. Mora, Hannah M. Twenter, Peter E. Graham, Pablo Pinedo, Douglas C. Eckery, and Jason E. Bruemmer

Efficacy of repellent-treated structural barriers for Richardson’s ground squirrels (Urocitellus richardsonii (Sabine)) and house mice (Mus musculus L.), Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Hailey E. McLean, and Scott J. Werner

Black - billed Magpie Agonistic Mobbing Attack on a Bullsnake, James J. DeLutes III and Richard M. Engeman

PITUOPHIS CATENIFER SAYI (Bullsnake). AGONISTIC MOBBING ATTACK., James J. Delutes III and Richard M. Engeman

Estimating Interspecific Economic Risk of Bird Strikes With Aircraft, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Michael J. Begier, Jason D. Kougher, Jenny E. Washburn, Phyllis R. Miller, and Richard A. Dolbeer

Individual variation in avian avoidance behaviours in response to repeated, simulated vehicle approach, Travis L. DeVault, T. W. Seamans, B. F. Blackwell, S. L. Lima, and E. Fernandez-Juricic

Evaluating Blackbird Behavioral Response Toward Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs): Exploiting Antipredator Behavior to Enhance Avoidance, Conor C. Egan, Lucas Wandrie, Bradley F. Blackwell, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, and Page E. Klug

Chapter 11 An International Perspective on the Regulation of Rodenticides, John D. Eisemann, Penny M. Fisher, Alan Buckle, and Simon Humphrys

Common Ravens Conditioned to a Nutritious Seasonal Aquatic Food Source in Rocky Mountain National Park, Richard M. Engeman

Objectives and integrated approaches for the control of brown tree snakes: An updated overview, Richard M. Engeman, Aaron B. Shiels, and Craig S. Clark

Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States, Lucas Ferguson, Kaijian Luo, Alicia K. Olivier, Fred L. Cunningham, Sherry Blackmon, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Hailiang Sun, John Baroch, Mark W. Lutman, Bianca Quade, William Epperson, Richard Webby, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Species With Greater Aerial Maneuverability Have Higher Frequency of Collisions With Aircraft: A Comparative Study, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, James Brand, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, and Travis L. DeVault

Grass is not always greener: rodenticide exposure of a threatened species near marijuana growing operations, Alan B. Franklin, Peter C. Carlson, Angela Rex, Jeremy T. Rockwelt, David Garza, Emily Culhane, Steven F. Volker, Robert J. Dusek, Valerie I. Shearn-Bochsler, Mourad W. Gabriel, and Katherine E. Horak

FLAVOR PREFERENCE AND EFFICACY OF VARIABLE DOSE ONTARIO RABIES VACCINE BAIT (ONRAB) DELIVERY IN STRIPED SKUNKS (MEPHITIS MEPHITIS), Amy Gilbert, Shylo Johnson, Nikki Walker, Alex Beath, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Assessing the potential impacts of a changing climate on the distribution of a rabies virus vector, Mark A. Hayes and Antoinette J. Piaggio

CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF INFECTION WITH NOVEL BRUCELLA ORGANISMS IN CAPTIVE WAXY TREE FROGS (PHYLLOMEDUSA SAUVAGII) AND COLORADO RIVER TOADS (INCILIUS ALVARIUS), Kelly E. Helmick, Michael M. Garner, Jack Rhyan, and Daniel Bradway

Invasion ecology of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) in Florida, USA: the role of humans in the expansion and colonization of an invasive wild ungulate, Felipe A. Hernandez, Brandon M. Parker, Cortney L. Pylant, Timothy J. Smyser, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Stacey L. Lance, Michael P. Milleson, James D. Austin, and Samantha M. Wisely

Feral Goats and Sheep, Steven C. Hess, Dirk H. Van Vuren, and Gary W. Witmer

Effects of vulture exclusion on carrion consumption by facultative scavengers, Jacob E. Hill, Travis L. DeVault, James C. Beasley, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., and Jerrod L. Belant

Valuing the absence of feral swine in the United States: A partial equilibrium approach, J. J. Holderieath, D. L. Pendell, J. C. Hadrich, A. Anderson, C. Slootmaker, E. Harper, and S. A. Shwiff

Pharmacokinetics of Anticoagulant Rodenticides in Target and Non-target Organisms, Katherine Horak, Penny M. Fisher, and Brian M. Hopkins

Neutralizing antibodies against flaviviruses, Babanki virus, and Rift Valley fever virus in Ugandan bats, Rebekah C. Kading, Robert M. Kityo, Eric C. Mossel, Erin M. Borland, Teddie Nakayiki, Betty Nalikka, Luke Nyakarahuka, Jeremy P. Ledermann, Nicholas A. Panella, Amy T. Gilbert, Mary B. Crabtree, Julian Kerbis Peterhans, Jonathan S. Towner, Brian R. Amman, Tara K. Sealy, Stuart T. Nichol, Ann M. Powers, Julius J. Lutwama, and Barry R. Miller

Foraging behavior of red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) with varying coverage of anthraquinone-based repellent, Brandon K. Kaiser, Mike Ostlie, and Page E. Klug

Development and Evaluation of a Bait Station for Selectively Dispensing Bait to Invasive Wild Pigs, Michael Lavelle, Nathan P. Snow, Joe M. Halseth, John C. Kinsey, Justin A. Foster, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

The effect of wildfire on population dynamics for two native small mammal species in a coastal heathland in Queensland, Australia, Adam C. Liedloff, John C. Wilson, and Richard M. Engeman

European Starlings, George M. Linz, Ron J. Johnson, and James Thiele

Spatial processes decouple management from objectives in a heterogeneous landscape: predator control as a case study, Peter J. Mahoney, Julie K. Young, Kent R. Hersey, Randy T. Larsen, Brock R. McMillan, and David C. Stoner

Molecular Population Structure for Feral Swine in the United States, Blake E. McCann, Timothy J. Smyser, Brandon S. Schmit, Robert A. Newman, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Mathew J. Malek, Seth R. Swafford, Richard A. Sweitzer, and Rebecca B. Simmons

Cytokine contributions to alterations of the volatile metabolome induced by inflammation, Patrick Millet, Maryanne Opiekun, Talia Martin, Gary K. Beauchamp, and Bruce A. Kimball

Consistent individual behavior: evidence of personality in black bears, Patrick J. Myers and Julie K. Young

Visual cues for woodpeckers: light reflectance of decayed wood varies by decay fungus, Sean T. O'Daniels, Dylan C. Kesler, Jeanne D. Mihail, Elisabeth B. Webb, and Scott J. Werner

Feminization of Male Brown Treesnake Methyl Ketone Expression via Steroid Hormone Manipulation, M. Rockwell Parker, Saumya M. Patel, Jennifer E. Zachry, and Bruce A. Kimball

Antibody evidence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus detected in sera collected from feral swine (Sus scrofa) across the United States, Kerri Pedersen, Ryan S. Miller, Anthony R. Mustante, Timonthy S. White, James D. Freye II, and Thomas Gidlewski

Mitigation Translocation of Red-Tailed Hawks to Reduce Raptor–Aircraft Collisions, Craig K. Pullins, Travis L. Guerrant, Scott F. Beckerman, and Brian E. Washburn

Lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in wild birds inhabiting North America, Andrew M. Ramey, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Yohannes Berhane, David E. Swayne, and David E. Stallknecht

Anticoagulant Rodenticide Toxicity to Non-target Wildlife Under Controlled Exposure Conditions, Barnett A. Rattner and F. Nicholas Mastrota

Interactions between the invasive Burmese python, Python bivittatus Kuhl, and the local mosquito community in Florida, USA, Lawrence E. Reeves, Kenneth L. Krysko, Michael L. Avery, Jennifer L. Gillett-Kaufman, Akito Y. Kawahara, C. Roxanne Connelly, and Phillip E. Kaufman

Assessing the utility of metabarcoding for diet analyses of the omnivorous wild pig (Sus scrofa), Michael S. Robeson II, Kamil Khanipov, George Golovko, Samantha M. Wisely, Michael D. White, Michael Bodenchuck, Timothy J. Smyser, Yuriy Fofanov, Noah Fierer, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

It takes two: Evidence for reduced sexual conflict over parental care in a biparental canid, Christopher J. Schell, Julie K. Young, Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf, Jill M. Mateo, and Rachel M. Santymire

Diets of Kauai’s invasive rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri): evidence of seed predation and dispersal in a human-altered landscape, Aaron B. Shiels, William P. Bukoski, and Shane R. Siers

Invasive Rats (Rattus sp.), but not always Mice (Mus musculus), are Ubiquitous at All Elevations and Habitats within the Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico, Aaron B. Shiels and Gabriela E. Ramirez de Arellano

Economics of Invasive Species Damage and Damage Management, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Steven S. Shwiff, Jason Holderieath, William Haden-Chomphosy, and Aaron M. Anderson

Potential secondary poisoning risks to non-targets from a sodium nitrite toxic bait for invasive wild pigs, Nathan P. Snow, Justin A. Foster, Eric H. VanNatta, Katherine E. Horak, Simon T. Humphrys, Linton D. Staples, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Regional-Based Mitigation to Reduce Wildlife–Vehicle Collisions, Nathan P. Snow, Zhen Zhang, Andrew O. Finley, Brent A. Rudolph, William F. Porter, David M. Williams, and Scott R. Winterstein

Chemical composition of glandular secretions from a pair-living monogamous primate: Sex, age, and gland differences in captive and wild owl monkeys (Aotus spp.), Andrea Spence-Aizenberg, Bruce A. Kimball, Lawrence E. Williams, and Eduardo Fernandez-Duque

Evaluation of the palatability and toxicity of candidate baits and toxicants for mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus), Robert T. Sugihara, William C. Pitt, Are R. Berentsen, and Cynthia G. Payne

The Role of Dog Population Management in Rabies Elimination—A Review of Current Approaches and Future Opportunities, Louise H. Taylor, Ryan M. Wallace, Deepashree Balaram, Joann M. Lindenmayer, Douglas C. Eckery, Beryl Mutonono-Watkiss, Ellie Parravani, and Louis H. Nel

Anticoagulant Rodenticides and Wildlife: Concluding Remarks, Nico W. van den Brink, John E. Elliot, Richard F. Shore, and Barnett A. Rattner

Anticoagulant Rodenticides and Wildlife: Introduction, Nico W. van den Brink, John E. Elliott, Richard F. Shore, and Barnett A. Rattner

Phase 2 Wildlife Management - Addressing Invasive and Overabundant Wildlife: The White-tailed Deer Continuum and Invasive Wild Pig Example, Kurt Vercauteren, Amy Davis, and Kim Pepin

Perspectives on Existing and Potential New Alternatives to Anticoagulant Rodenticides and the Implications for Integrated Pest Management, Gary W. Witmer

A Cage Efficacy Study of Sodium Nitrite Formulations for Rodent Control, Gary W. Witmer, Rachael Moulton, and Celeste Samura

Cage efficacy study of an experimental rodenticide using wild-caught house mice, Gary W. Witmer, Rachael Moulton, and Celeste Samura

Conclusions, Challenges, and Research Needs, Gary W. Witmer, William C. Pitt, and James C. Beasley

Introduction, Gary W. Witmer, William C. Pitt, and James C. Beasley

Ecology, Impacts, and Management of Invasive Rodents in the United States, Gary W. Witmer and Aaron B. Shiels

2017

Determination of 20, 25-diazacholesterol in avian matrices by high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, Benjamin G. Abbo, Laura E. Hulslander, and David A. Goldade

Reprint of: CYP1A protein expression and catalytic activity in double-crested cormorants experimentally exposed to deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon 252 oil, Courtney R. Alexander, Michael J. Hooper, Dave Cacela, Kim D. Smelker, Caleshia S. Calvin, Karen M. Dean, Steve J. Bursian, Fred L. Cunningham, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Katherine E. Horak, John P. Isanhart, Jane Link, Susan A. Shriner, and Céline A.J. Godard-Codding

Can we save large carnivores without losing large carnivore science?, Benjamin L. Allen, Lee R. Allen, Henrik Andrén, Guy Ballard, Luigi Boitani, Richard M. Engeman, Peter J. S. Fleming, Adam T. Ford, Peter M. Haswell, Rafal Kowalczyk, John D. C. Linnell, L. David Mech, and Daniel M. Parker

Large carnivore science: non-experimental studies are useful, but experiments are better, Benjamin L. Allen, Lee R. Allen, Henrik Andrén, Guy Ballard, Luigi Boitani, Richard M. Engeman, Peter J. S. Fleming, Adam T. Ford, Peter M. Haswell, Rafal Kowalczyk, John D. C. Linnell, L. David Mech, and Daniel M. Parker

Wetland Bird Abundance and Safety Implications for Military Aircraft Operations, Kent Andersson, Craig A. Davis, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Jason R. Heinen

Wetland Bird Abundance and Safety Implications for Military Aircraft Operations, Kent Andersson, Craig A. Davis, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Jason R. Heinen

Frightening Devices, Michael L. Avery and Scott J. Werner

Novel and current rodenticides for pocket gopher Thomomys spp. management in vineyards: what works?, Roger A. Baldwin, Ryan Meinerz, and Gary W. Witmer

Panmixia and Limited Interspecific Introgression in Coyotes (Canis latrans) from West Virginia and Virginia, USA, Justin H. Bohling, Lauren L. Mastro, Jennifer R. Adams, Eric M. Gese, Sheldon F. Owen, and Lisette P. Waits

Using resident-based hazing programs to reduce human–coyote conflicts in urban environments, Mary Ann Bonnell and Stewart W. Breck

Evaluating lethal and nonlethal management options for urban coyotes, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon A. Poessel, and Mary Ann Bonnell

A review of virulent Newcastle disease viruses in the United States and the role of wild birds in viral persistence and spread, Vienna R. Brown and Sarah N. Bevins

Reprint of: Overview of avian toxicity studies for the Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment, S. J. Bursian, C. R. Alexander, D. Cacela, Fred L. Cunningham, K. M. Dean, B. S. Dorr, C. K. Ellis, Céline A.J. Godard-Codding, C. G. Guglielmo, K. C. Hanson-Dorr, K. E. Harr, K. Healy, Michael J. Hooper, K. E. Horak, John P. Isanhart, L. V. Kennedy, J. E. Link, I. Maggini, J. K. Moye, C. R. Perez, C. A. Pritsos, Susan A. Shriner, K. A. Trust, and P. L. Tuttle

Influence of Precipitation and Crop Germination on Resource Selection by Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in Southwest Colorado, Emily M. Carrollo, Heather E. Johnson, Justin W. Fischer, Matthew Hammond, Patricia D. Dorsey, Charles Anderson, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and W. David Walter

Field-based evaluation of a male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage concentration method, J. C. Chandler, A. Pérez-Méndez, J. Paar III, M. M. Doolittle, B. Bisha, and L. D. Goodridge

Field-based evaluation of a male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage concentration method, J. C. Chandler, A. Pérez-Méndez, J. Paar III, M. M. Doolittle, B. Bisha, and L. D. Goodridge

A method for the improved detection of aerosolized influenza viruses and the male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage MS2, J. C. Chandler, J. W. Schaeffer, M. Davidson, S. L. Magzamen, A. Pérez-Méndez, S. J. Reynolds, L. D. Goodridge, J. Volckens, A. B. Franklin, S. A. Shriner, and B. Bisha

Effects of crop type and harvest on nest survival and productivity of dickcissels in semi-natural grasslands, Tara J. Conkling, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, and James A. Martin

Development of methods for avian oil toxicity studies using the double crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), Fred L. Cunningham; Karen Dean; Katie C. Hanson-Dorr; Kendal Harr; Kate Healy; Katherine E. Horak; Jane Link; Susan A. Shriner; Steve J. Bursian; and Brian S, Dorr

Impact of body condition on influenza A virus infection dynamics in mallards following a secondary exposure, Nicholas G. Dannemiller, Colleen T. Webb, Kenneth R. Wilson, Kevin T. Bentler, Nicole L. Mooers, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Alan B. Franklin, and Susan A. Shriner

Estimating population density for disease risk assessment: The importance of understanding the area of influence of traps using wild pigs as an example, Amy J. Davis, Bruce Leland, Michael Bodenchuk, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Kim M. Pepin

Changes in white cell estimates and plasma chemistry measurements following oral or external dosing of double-crested cormorants, Phalacocorax auritus, with artificially weathered MC252 oil, Karen M. Dean, Steven J. Bursian, Dave Cacela, Michael W. Carney, Fred L. Cunningham, Brian Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Kate A. Healy, Katherine E. Horak, Jane E. Link, Ian Lipton, Andrew K. McFadden, Moira A. McKernan, and Kendal E. Harr

Changes in white cell estimates and plasma chemistry measurements following oral or external dosing of double-crested cormorants, Phalacocorax auritus, with artificially weathered MC252 oil, Karen M. Dean, Steven J. Bursian, Dave Cacela, Michael W. Carney, Fred L. Cunningham, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Kate A. Healy, Katherine E. Horak, Jane E. Link, Ian Lipton, Andrew K. McFadden, Moira A. McKernan, and Kendal E. Harr