National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


Band Encounters of Wintering European Starlings Captured in Kansas, Nebraska, and Texas, H. Jeffrey Homan, James R. Thiele, Garrett W. Unrein, Shannon M. Gaukler, Anthony A. Slowik, Linda B. Penry, and George M. Linz

Freshwater Clams As Bioconcentrators of Avian Influenza Virus in Water, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Jenny S. Carlson, Kevin T. Bentler, Kacy R. Cobble, Dale L. Nolte, and Alan B. Franklin

Environmental temperatures, physiology and behavior limit the range expansion of invasive Burmese pythons in southeastern USA, Elliott L.R. Jacobson, David G. Barker, Tracy M. Barker, Richard Mauldin, Michael L. Avery, Richard Engeman, and Stephen Secor

Quantitative PCR estimates Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) infection levels in semi-slugs (Parmarion martensi), Susan I. Jarvi, Margaret E.M. Farias, Kay Howe, Steven Jacquier, Robert Hollingsworth, and William Pitt

Phytochemical variation within a single plant species influences foraging behavior of deer, Bruce Kimball, John H. Russell, and Peter K. Ott

Antibodies to Avian Influenza Viruses in Canada Geese (Branta canadensis): A Potential Surveillance Tool?, Whitney M. Kistler, David E. Stallknecht, Thomas J. Deliberto, Seth Swafford, Kerri Pedersen, Kyle Van Why, Paul C. Wolf, Jerry A. Hill, Darren L. Brunning, James C. Cumbee, Randall M. Mickley, Carl W. Betsill, Adam R. Randall, Roy D. Berghaus, and Michael J. Yabsley

Assessment of Bird Damage to Sunflower and Corn in North Dakota, Megan E. Klosterman, George M. Linz, Anthony A. Slowik, and William J. Bleier

Integrity and Retention of Ear-Tag Radiotransmitters in Domestic Cattle and Feral Horses, Bryan M. Kluever, Laura Lagos, Stewart W. Breck, Larry D. Howery, Manuel L. Sanmartín, David L. Bergman, and Felipe Bárcena

Effects of Intraguild Predation: Evaluating Resource Competition Between Two Canid Species With Apparent Niche Separation, Adam J. Kozlowski, Eric M. Gese, and Wendy M. Arjo

Development of a Feral Swine Toxic Bait (Hog-Gone®) and Bait Hopper (Hog-Hopper™) in Australia and the USA, Steven Lapidge, Jason Wishart, Linton Staples, Kathy Fagerstone, Tyler Campbell, and John Eisemann

Preliminary evaluation of 9,10 anthraquinone bird repellent for managing blackbird damage to ripening sunflower, George M. Linz and H. Jeffrey Homan

Sunflower Growers Use Nonlethal Methods to Manage Blackbird Damage, George M. Linz, H. Jeffrey Homan, Scott Werner, James C. Carlson, and William J. Bleier

Evaluation of elevated bait trays for attracting blackbirds (Icteridae) in central North Dakota, George M. Linz, Jamison B. Winter, and William J. Bleier

An Estimate of Avian Mortality at Communication Towers in the United States and Canada, Travis Longcore, Catherine Rich, Pierre Mineau, Beau MacDonald, Daniel G. Bert, Lauren M. Sullivan, Erin Mutrie, Sidney A. Gauthreaux Jr., Robert L. Crawford, Michael L. Avery, Albert M. Manville II, Emilie R. Travis, and David Drake

Box Traps for Feral Swine Capture: A Comparison of Gate Styles in Texas, David B. Long and Tyler A. Campbell

Long-term effects of immunocontraception on wild boar fertility, physiology and behaviour, Giovanna Massei, Dave P. Cowan, Julia Coats, Fiona Bellamy, Roger Quy, Stéphane Pietravalle, Matthew Brash, and Lowell A. Miller

What Do We Know? A Literature Review of the Eastern Coyote, Lauren L. Mastro, Eric M. Gese, Julie K. Young, and John A. Shivik

Boiga Irregularis (Brown Treesnake), Tom Mathies, William C. Pitt, and Joseph A. Rabon

The use of DiazaCon™ to limit fertility by reducing serum cholesterol in female grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, Brenda A. Mayle, Mark Ferryman, Andrew Peace, Christi A. Yoder, Lowell A. Miller, and David Cowan

HOME RANGES OF THE NILGAI ANTELOPE (BOSELAPHUS TRAGOCAMELUS) IN TEXAS, Jonathan D. Moczygemba, David G. Hewitt, Tyler A. Campbell, J. Alfonso Ortega-S., Justin Feild, and Mickey W. Hellickson

Oblique color vision in an open-habitat bird: spectral sensitivity, photoreceptor distribution and behavioral implications, Bret A. Moore, Patrice Baumhardt, Megan Doppler, Jacquelyn Randolet, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, Ellis R. Loew, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

A Reassessment of Historical Records of Avian Introductions to Australia: No Case for Propagule Pressure, Michael P. Moulton, Wendell P. Cropper Jr., Linda E. Moulton, Michael L. Avery, and David Peacock

Historical Records Of Passerine Introductions To New Zealand Fail To Support The Propagule Pressure Hypothesis, Michael P. Moulton, Wendell P. Cropper Jr., and Michael L. Avery

North American Birds as Potential Amplifying Hosts of Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Nicole M. Nemeth, Angela Bosco-Lauth, Paul T. Oesterle, Dennis Kohler, and Richard Bowen

Detection of prion protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease using protein misfolding cyclic amplification, Tracy A. Nichols, Terry R. Spraker, Tom Gidlewski, Jenny G. Powers, Glenn C. Telling, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Mark D. Zabel

Detection probabilities of two introduced frogs in Hawaii: implications for assessing non-native species distributions, Christina A. Olson, Karen H. Beard, David N. Koons, and William C. Pitt

Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 8. Eleutherodactylus planirostris, the Greenhouse Frog (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae), Christina A. Olson, Karen H. Beard, and William C. Pitt

Scavenger community response to the removal of a dominant scavenger, Z. H. Olson, J. C. Beasley, T. L. DeVault, and O. E. Rhodes Jr.

Scavenger Community Response to the Removal of a Dominant Scavenger, Z. H. Olson, J. C. Beasley, Travis L. DeVault, and O. E. Rhodes Jr.

The Role of the National Wildlife Disease Program in Wildlife Disease Surveillance and Emergency Response, Kerri Pedersen, John A. Baroch, Dale L. Nolte, Tom Gidlewski, and Thomas J. Deliberto

Apparent prevalence of swine brucellosis in feral swine in the United States, Kerri Pedersen, Sarah N. Bevins, Brandon S. Schmit, Mark W. Lutman, Michael P. Milleson, Clint T. Turnage, Troy T. Bigelow, and Thomas J. Deliberto

Detection of volatile organic compounds in cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis, Nir Peled, Radu Ionescu, Pauline Nol, Orna Barash, Matt McCollum, Kurt VerCauteren, Matthew Koslow, Randal Stahl, Jack Rhyan, and Hossam Haick

Quantification of heterosubtypic immunity between avian influenza subtypes H3N8 and H4N6 in multiple avian host species, Kim M. Pepin, Kaci Van Dalen, N. L. Mooers, J. W. Ellis, H. J. Sullivan, Jeff J. Root, Colleen T. Webb, A. B. Franklin, and Susan A. Shriner

A novel bipolar electric fence for excluding white-tailed deer from stored livestock feed, G. E. Phillips, M. J. Lavelle, J. W. Fischer, Joshua J. White, Scott J. Wells, and K. C. VerCauteren

Molecular Surveillance of Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds across the United States: Inferences from the Hemagglutinin Gene, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Susan A. Shriner, Kaci Van Dalen, Alan B. Franklin, Theodore D. Anderson, and Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis

Management of Invasive Coqui Frog Populations in Hawaii, William C. Pitt, Karen H. Beard, and Rogelio E. Doratt

Freeing Islands from Rodents, William C. Pitt, Daniel Vice, Dana Lujen, Diane Vice, and Gary Witmer

Modification of net configurations of the Coda Netlauncher® to enhance bird capture, Amanda M. Prisock, Brian S. Dorr, and James C. Cumbee

Didactic Lessons Derived from the Shoshone River Skunk Rabies Epizootic, Craig A. Ramey, Kenneth H. Mills, Justin W. Fischer, and Robert G. Mclean

Assessment of toxicity and potential risk of the anticoagulant rodenticide diphacinone using Eastern screech-owls (Megascops asio), Barnett A. Rattner, Katherine E. Horak, Rebecca S. Lazarus, Karen M. Eisenreich, Carol U. Meteyer, Steven F. Volker, Christopher M. Campton, John D. Eisemann, and John J. Johnston

Home Ranges Of Female Rio Grande Turkeys (Meleagris Gallopavo Intermedia) In Southern Texas, Eric Reyes Ramirez, Megan C. Clayton, Cody W. Lawson, Stephen M. Burns, Rafael Guarneros-Altimirano, Stephen J. Demaso, William P. Kuvlesky Jr., David G. Hewitt, J. Alfonso Ortega-Santos, and Tyler A. Campbell

Potential Influences of Climate and Nest Structure on Spotted Owl Reproductive Success: A Biophysical Approach, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Alan B. Franklin, George S. Bakken, and R. J. Gutierrez

West Nile virus associations in wild mammals: a synthesis, J. Jeffrey Root

Genetic evaluation of an attempted Rattus rattus eradication on Congo Cay, U.S. Virgin Islands, identifies importance of eradication units, Julie A. Savidge, Matthew W. Hopken, Gary W. Witmer, Susan M. Jojola, Judy J. Pierce, Patrick W. Burke, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Territory fidelity, space use, and survival rates of wild coyotes following surgical sterilization, Renee G. Seidler and Eric M. Gese

Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild House Mice, Susan A. Shriner, Kaci Van Dalen, Nicole L. Mooers, Jeremy W. Ellis, Heather J. Sullivan, J. Jeffrey Root, Angela M. Pelzel, and Alan B. Franklin

Bioeconomic Modelling of Raccoon Rabies Spread Management Impacts in Quebec, Canada, S. Shwiff, C. Aenishaenslin, A. Ludwig, P. Berthiaume, M. Bigras-Poulin, K. Kirkpatrick, L. Lambert, and D. Bélanger

Producer survey of bird-livestock interactions in commercial dairies, Stephanie A. Shwiff, James C. Carlson, J. H. Glass, J. Suckow, Martin S. Lowney, K. M. Moxcey, Bruce Larson, and George M. Linz

Synergistic stressors and the dilemma of conservation in a multivariate world: a case study in Allegheny woodrats, T. J. Smyser, S. A. Johnson, L. Kristen Page, and Olin Eugene Rhodes Jr.

Developing an Effective Management Plan for Starlings Roosting in Downtown Omaha, Nebraska, James R. Thiele, George M. Linz, H. Jeffrey Homan, and Garrett W. Unrein

Swift Foxes and Ideal Free Distribution: Relative Influence of Vegetation and Rodent Prey Base on Swift Fox Survival, Density, and Home Range Size, Craig M. Thompson and Eric M. Gese

Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America: Effects of age, sex, polymorphism at PRNP codon 96, and disease progression, Bruce V. Thomsen, David A. Schneider, Katherine I. O’Rourke, Thomas Gidlewski, James McLane, Robert W. Allen, Alex A. McIsaac, Gordon B. Mitchell, Delwyn P. Keane, Terry R. Spraker, and Aru Balachandran

U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services: Providing Federal Leadership in Managing Conflicts with Wildlife, Mark E. Tobin

Cow dogs: Use of livestock protection dogs for reducing predation and transmission of pathogens from wildlife to cattle, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Michael J. Lavelle, Thomas M. Gehring, and Jean-Marc Landry

Prion Remains Infectious after Passage through Digestive System of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos), Kurt C. Vercauteren, John L. Pilon, Paul B. Nash, Gregory E. Phillips, and Justin W. Fischer

Rabies in North America: A Model of the One Health Approach, Kurt Vercauteren, Christine Ellis, Richard Chipman, Thomas Deliberto, Stephanie Shwiff, and Dennis Slate

On-FarmMitigation of Transmission of Tuberculosis fromWhite-Tailed Deer to Cattle: Literature Review and Recommendations, W. David Walter, Charles W. Anderson, Rick Smith, Mike Vanderklok, James J. Averill, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Evaluation of Remote Delivery of Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Technology to Mark Large Mammals, W. David Walter, Charles W. Anderson, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Using three-dimensional flight patterns at airfields to identify hotspots for avian-aircraft collisions, W. David Walter, Justin W. Fischer, John S. Humphrey, Trey S. Daughtery, Michael P. Milleson, Eric A. Tillman, and Michael L. Avery

Using three-dimensional flight patterns at airfields to identify hotspots for avianeaircraft collisions, W. David Walter, Justin W. Fischer, John S. Humphrey, Trey S. Daughtery, Michael P. Milleson, Eric A. Tillman, and Michael L. Avery

Avian use of solid waste transfer stations, Brian E. Washburn

Historical And Current Status Of Laughing Gulls Breeding In New York State, Brian E. Washburn, Martin S. Lowney, and Allen L. Gosser

Foraging Preferences of Canada Geese Among Turfgrasses: Implications for Reducing Human–Goose Conflicts, Brian E. Washburn and Thomas W. Seamans

The role of a generalized ultraviolet cue for blackbird food selection, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh K. Tupper, James C. Carlson, Susan E. Pettit, Jeremy W. Ellis, and George M. Linz

Beyond use versus availability: behaviour-explicit resource selection, Ryan R. Wilson, Lynne Gilbert-Norton, and Eric M. Gese

Eradication of Invasive Rodents on Islands of the United States, Gary Witmer

Vertebrate Species Introductions in the United States and its Territories, Gary Witmer and Pam Fuller

Invasive Rodents In The United States: Ecology, Impacts, And Management, Gary Witmer and William C. Pitt

The Introduction, Impacts, And Management of a Large, Invasive, Aquatic Rodent In The United States, Gary Witmer, Trevor R. Sheffels, and Stephen R. Kendrot

An assessment of seedling damage by wild house mice (Mus musculus) and wild deer mice (Peromyscus spp.), Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Rachael S. Moulton, and Jenna L. Swartz

Movement and Habitat Use of Feral Swine Near Domestic Swine Facilities, A. Christy Wyckoff, Scott E. Henke, Tyler A. Campbell, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Estimates of Energy and Prey Requirements of Wolverines, Julie K. Young, Brian Hudgens, and David K. Garcelon


Wild Dogma: An Examination Of Recent "Evidence" For Dingo Regulation Of Invasive Mesopredator Release In Australia., Benjamin L. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, and Lee R. Allen

Wild Dogma II: The Role And Implications Of Wild Dogma For Wild Dog Management In Australia., Benjamin L. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, and Lee R. Allen

Partitioning Of Anthropogenic Watering Sites By Desert Carnivores., Todd C. Atwood, Tricia L. Fry, and Bruce Leland

Modeling Connectivity of Black Bears in a Desert Sky Island Archipelago, Todd C. Atwood; Julie K. Young; Jon P. Beckmann; Stewart W. Breck; Jennifer A. Fike; Olin Rhodes, Jr.; and Kirby D. Bristow

Hair of the Dog: Obtaining Samples From Coyotes and Wolves Noninvasively, David E. Ausband, Julie Young, Barbara Fannin, Michael S. Mitchell, Jennifer L. Stenglen, Lizette P. Waits, and John A. Shivik

Acetaminophen and Zinc Phosphide For Lethal Management of Invasive Lizards Ctenosaura similis , Michael L. Avery, John Eisemann, Kandy L. Keacher, and Peter J. Savarie

Vulture Flight Behavior and Implications for Aircraft Safety, Michael L. Avery, John S. Humphrey, Trey S. Daughtery, Justin W. Fischer, Michael P. Milleson, Eric A. Tillman, William E. Bruce, and W. David Walter

Persistent Infection or Successive Reinfection of Deer Mice with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis, Ying Bai, Charles H. Calisher, Michael Y. Kosoy, J. Jeffrey Root, and Jeffrey B. Doty

The Carrot Or The Stick? Evaluation Of Education And Enforcement As Management Tools For Human-Wildlife Conflicts., Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Stewart W. Breck, Kenneth R. Wilson, and John Broderick

Active Use of Coyotes (Canis latrans) To Detect Bovine Tuberculosis In Northeastern Michigan, USA, Are R. Berentsen, Michael R. Dunbar, Shylo R. Johnson, S. Robbe-Austerman, L. Martinez, and R. L. Jones

Interface Between Black-footed Ferret Research And Operational Conservation., Dean E. Biggins, Travis M. Livieri, and Stewart W. Breck

White-Tailed Deer Incidents With U.S. Civil Aircraft, Kirsten M. Biondi, Jerrold L. Belant, James A. Martin, Travis L. Devault, and Guiming Wang

Baylisascariasis fact sheet, Emily L. Blizzard

Domestic Calf Mortality And Producer Detection Rates In The Mexican Wolf Recovery Area: Implications For Livestock Management And Carnivore Compensation Schemes., Stewart W. Breck, Bryan M. Kluever, Michael Panasci, John Oakleaf, Terry Johnson, Warren B. Ballard, Larry Howery, and David L. Bergman

Annual Seroprevalence of Yersinia pestis in Coyotes as Predictors of Interannual Variation in Reports of Human Plague Cases in Arizona, United States, Heidi E. Brown, Craig E. Levy, Russell E. Enscore, Martin E. Schriefer, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Kenneth L. Gage, and Rebecca J. Eisen

Natal Colony Site Fidelity Of Herring Gulls At Sandusky Bay, Ohio., Bruce N. Buckingham and Benjamin Bacak

The Relative Abundance of Deer Mice with Antibody to Sin Nombre Virus Corresponds to the Occurrence of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Nearby Humans, Charles H. Calisher, James N. Mills, J. Jeffrey Root, Jeffrey B. Doty, and Barry J. Beaty

Absence Of Mycobacterium Bovis In Feral Swine (Sus Scrofa) From The Southern Texas Border Region., Tyler A. Campbell, David B. Long, Luiz R. Bazan, Bruce V. Thomsen, SueLee Robbe-Austerman, Ronald B. Davey, Liza A. Soliz, Seth Swafford, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Efficacy Of The Boar-Operated-System To Deliver Baits To Feral Swine., Tyler A. Campbell, David B. Long, and Giovanna Massei

Diseases and Parasites [of White-tailed Deer], Tyler A. Campbell and K. C. VerCauteren

Nilgai Antelope In Northern Mexico As A Possible Carrier For Cattle Fever Ticks And Babesia Bovis And Babesia Bigemina., E M. Cardenas-Canales, J. Alfonso Ortega-Santos, Tyler A. Campbell, Zeferino Garcia-Vaquez, Antonio Cantu-Covarrubias, Julio V. Figueroa-Millian, Randy W. Deyoung, David G. Hewitt, and Fred C. Bryant

Rock Pigeon Use Of Livestock Facilities In Northern Colorado: Implications For Improving Farm Bio-Security., James C. Carlson, Larry Clark, Michael F. Antolin, and M. D. Salman

Efficacy Of European Starling Control To Reduce Salmonella Enterica Contamination In A Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation In The Texas Panhandle, James C. Carlson, Richard M. Engeman, Doreene R. Hyatt, Rickey L. Gilliland, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Larry Clark, Michael J. Bodenchuck, and George M. Linz

The role of starlings in the spread of Salmonella within concentrated animal feeding operations, James C. Carlson, Alan B. Franklin, Doreene R. Hyatt, Susan E. Pettit, and George M. Linz

The role of European starlings in the spread of coccidia within concentrated animal feeding operations, James C. Carlson, George M. Linz, Lora R. Ballweber, Stacey A. Elmore, Susan E. Pettit, and Alan B. Franklin

Movements of White-Tailed Deer in Riparian Habitat: Implications for Infectious Diseases, Gregory M. Clements, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Jason M. Gilsdorf, David M. Baasch, Myndi J. Clements, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Effectiveness of AV-1011® to Reduce Damage to Drill-Planted Rice From Blackbirds, John L. Cummings, Robert W. Byrd, William R. Eddleman, Richard Engeman, and Shelagh K. Tupper

Integrative approaches to disease control: the value of international collaborations, Thomas J. Deliberto, Dale L. Nolte, and William (Bill) H. Clay