National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."

2014

Ecological Routes of Avian Influenza Virus Transmission to a Common Mesopredator: An Experimental Evaluation of Alternatives, J. Jeffrey Root, Kevin T. Bentler, Susan A. Shriner, Nicole L. Mooers, Kaci K. VanDalen, Heather J. Sullivan, and Alan B. Franklin

Extended Viral Shedding of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus by Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis), J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner, Kevin T. Bentler, Thomas Gidlewski, Nicole L. Mooers, Jeremy W. Ellis, Terry R. Spraker, Kaci K. VanDalen, Heather J. Sullivan, and Alan B. Franklin

Shedding of a Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in a Common Synanthropic Mammal – The Cottontail Rabbit, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner, Kevin T. Bentler, Thomas Gidlewski, Nicole L. Mooers, Terry R. Spraker, Kaci K. VanDalen, Heather J. Sullivan, and Alan B. Franklin

Using novel spatial mark–resight techniques to monitor resident Canada geese in a suburban environment, M. Elizabeth Rutledge, Rachel Sollmann, Brian E. Washburn, Christopher E. Moorman, and Christopher S. DePerno

Behavioral Traits and Airport Type Affect Mammal Incidents with U.S. Civil Aircraft, Kristin B. Schwarz, Jerrold L. Belant, James A. Martin, Travis L. DeVault, and Guiming Wang

Diffusion of influenza viruses among migratory birds with a focus on the Southwest United States, Matthew Scotch, Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Kristy L. Pabilonia, Theodore Anderson, John Baroch, Dennis Kohler, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Using sterilization to change predation rates of wild coyotes:A test case involving pronghorn fawns, Renee G. Seidler, Eric M. Gese, and Mary M. Conner

Parenteral administration of GnRH constructs and adjuvants: Immuneresponses and effects on reproductive tissues of male mice, Sameer Sharma, Ian McDonald, Lowell Martin, and Lyn A. Hinds

Understory fern community structure, growth and spore production responses to a large-scale hurricane experiment in a Puerto Rico rainforest, Joanne M. Sharpe and Aaron B. Shiels

Efficacy of Plastic Mesh Tubes in Reducing Herbivory Damage by the Invasive Nutria (Myocastor coypus) in an Urban Restoration Site, Trevor R. Sheffels, Mark D. Sytsma, Jacoby Carter, and Jimmy D. Taylor

Trait-based plant mortality and preference for native versus non-native seedlings by invasive slug and snail herbivores in Hawaii, Aaron B. Shiels, Martin K. Ennis, and Laura Shiels

Understanding the key mechanisms of tropical forest responses to canopy loss and biomass deposition from experimental hurricane effects, Aaron B. Shiels and Grizelle Gonzalez

Responses to canopy loss and debris deposition in a tropical forest ecosystem: Synthesis from an experimental manipulation simulating effects of hurricane disturbance, Aaron B. Shiels, Grizelle González, and Michael R. Willig

Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 11. Rattus rattus, the Black Rat (Rodentia: Muridae), Aaron B. Shiels, William C. Pitt, Robert T. Sugihara, and Gary W. Witmer

Animal Attendance at M-44 Sodium Cyanide Ejector Sites for Coyotes, John A. Shivik, Lauren Mastro, and Julie K. Young

Spatial Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Cattle in Relation to Night Roosts Of Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) in Ohio, USA (2007–2009), A. L. Swirski, D. L. Pearl, M. L. Williams, H. J. Homan, G. M. Linz, N. Cernicchiaro, and J. T. LeJeune

The Evolution of Flow Devices Used to Reduce Flooding by Beavers: A Review, Jimmy D. Taylor and Russell D. Singleton

European starling feeding activity on repellent treated crops and pellets, Shelagh K. Tupper, Scott J. Werner, James C. Carlson, Susan E. Pettit, John C. Wise, Catherine A. Lindell, and George M. Linz

Right Place, Wrong Species: A 20-Year Review of Rabies Virus Cross Species Transmission among Terrestrial Mammals in the United States, Ryan M. Wallace, Amy Gilbert, Dennis Slate, Richard Chipman, Amber Singh, Cassie Wedd, and Jesse D. Blanton

Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis, W. David Walter, Rick Smith, Mike Vanderklok, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

HUMAN–OSPREY CONFLICTS: INDUSTRY, UTILITIES, COMMUNICATION, AND TRANSPORTATION, Brian E. Washburn

Wildlife Strikes With Military Rotary-Wing Aircraft During Flight Operations Within the United States, Brian E. Washburn, Paul J. Cisar, and Travis L. DeVault

WINTERING ECOLOGY OF ADULT NORTH AMERICAN OSPREYS, Brian E. Washburn, Mark S. Martell, Richard O. Bierregaard Jr., Charles J. Henny, Brian S. Dorr, and Thomas J. Olexa

Functional Significance of Ultraviolet Feeding Cues in Wild Turkeys, Scott J. Werner, Richard Buchholz, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. Pettit, and Jeremy W. Ellis

Synergistic effect of an ultraviolet feeding cue for an avianrepellent and protection of agricultural crops, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Susan E. Pettit, and Anna M. Mangan

Perceived impacts of wild turkeys and management techniques for Wisconsin ginseng production, Scott J. Werner, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Julie L. Elser, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Susan E. Pettit, Jason Suckow, Robert C. Willging, Jim A. Tharman, and Joe Heil

Application Strategies for an Anthraquinone-Based Repellent to Protect Oilseed Sunflower Crops from Pest Blackbirds, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. Pettit, Jeremy W. Ellis, James C. Carlson, David A. Goldade, Nicholas M. Hofmann, H. Jeffrey Homan, and George M. Linz

Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa, Brianna M. Williams, Are Berentsen, Barbara C. Shock, Maria Teixiera, Michael R. Dunbar, Matthew S. Becker, and Michael J. Yabsley

New Rodenticides: An Update on Recent Research Trials, Gary Witmer, Katherine Horak, and Rachel Moulton

Evaluating Habitat Manipulations and Rodenticides to Protect Seedlings from Rodent Damage at Restored Landfills in New York, Gary W. Witmer

An efficacy test of cholecalciferol plus diphacinone rodenticide baits for California voles (Microtus californicus Peale) to replace ineffective chlorophacinone baits, Gary W. Witmer, Rachael S. Moulton, and Roger A. Baldwin

Responses by wild house mice (Mus musculus) to variousstimuli in a novel environment, Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, and Rachael S. Moulton

Responses by wild house mice (Mus musculus) to variousstimuli in a novel environment, Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, and Rachael S. Moulton

2013

Intraguild relationships between sympatric predators exposed to lethal control: predator manipulation experiments, Benjamin L. Allen, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, and Luke K.-P. Leung

As clear as mud: A critical review of evidence for the ecological roles of Australian dingoes, Benjamin L. Allen, Peter J.S. Fleming, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Guy Ballard, and Luke K.-P. Leung

As clear as mud: A critical review of evidence for the ecological roles of Australian dingoes, Benjamin L.R. Allen, Peter J.S. Fleming, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Guy Ballard, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Frequent Cross-Species Transmission of Parvoviruses among Diverse Carnivore Hosts, Andrew B. Allison, Dennis J. Kohler, Karen A. Fox, Justin D. Brown, Richard W. Gerhold, Valerie I. Shearn-Bochsler, Edward J. Dubovi, Colin R. Parrish, and Edward C. Holmes

Spillover Benefits of Wildlife Management to Support Pheasant Populations, Aaron Anderson, Karen Gerhardt, Wylie T. Cross, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Bird damage to select fruit crops: The cost of damage and the benefits of control in five states, Aaron M. Anderson, C.A. Lindell, Karen M. Moxcey, W.F. Siemer, George M. Linz, P.D. Curtis, J.E. Carroll, C.L. Burrows, Jason R. Boulanger, K.M.M. Steensma, and Stpehanie A. Shwiff

The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents, A. Anderson and S. A. Shwiff

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Appendix, Index and Back Cover, Michael L. Avery, Jerrold L. Belant, Kristin M. Biondi, Bradley F. Blackwell, Jonathon D. Cepek, Larry Clark, Tara J. Conkling, Scott R. Craven, Paul D. Curtis, Travis L. DeVault, Richard A. Dolbeer, David Felstul, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, Alan B. Franklin, Sidney A. Gauthreaux Jr., Michael Lavelle, James A. Martin, Rebecca Mihalco, Paige M. Schmidt, Thomas W. Seamans, Kurt C. VerCauteren, and Brian E. Washburn

IMMUNOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL RESPONSE OF COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) TO EXPERIMENTAL INOCULATION WITH YERSINIA PESTIS, Laurie A. Baeten, Ryan Pappert, John Young, Martin E. Schriefer, Thomas Gidlewski, Dennis Kohler, and Richard A. Bowen

The influence of trap type and cover status on capture rates of pocket gophers in California, Roger A. Baldwin, Daniel B. Marcum, Steve B. Orloff, Stephen J. Vasquez, Cheryl A. Wilen, and Richard Engeman

Effectiveness of cattle operated bump gates and exclusion fences in preventing ungulate multi-host sanitary interaction, J.A. Barasona, K.C. VerCauteren, N. Saklou, C. Gortazar, and J. Vicente

Use of patch selection models as a decision support tool to evaluate mitigation strategies of human–wildlife conflict, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Colleen T. Webb, Stewart W. Breck, and Kenneth R. Wilson

Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Brucella abortus- Seropositive Bison, Alona Bayn, Pauline Nol, Ulrike Tisch, Jack Rhyan, Christine K. Ellis, and Hossam Haick

Conclusions and Future Directions, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, and Bradley F. Blackwell

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 15 Conclusions and Future Directions, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, and Bradley F. Blackwell

Understanding Animal Movements at and near Airports, Jerrold L. Belant, Brian E. Washburn, and Travis L. DeVault

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Understanding Animal Movements at and near Airports, Jerrold L. Belant, Brian E. Washburn, and Travis L. DeVault

Rabies, Canine Distemper, and Canine Parvovirus Exposure in Large Carnivore Communities from Two Zambian Ecosystems, Are R. Berentsen, Mike R. Dunbar, Matthew S. Becker, Jassiel M'soka, Egil Droge, Nicholas M. Sakuya, Wigganson Matandiko, Rachel McRobb, and Cathleen A. Hanlon

Spatial Ecology of Urban Raccoons in Northeastern Ohio: Implications for Oral Rabies Vaccination, Are R. Berentsen, Mike R. Dunbar, Chadd E. Fitzpatrick, and W. David Walter

Neospora caninum Exposure in Overlapping Populations of Coyotes (Canis latrans) and Feral Swine (Sus scrofa), Sarah Bevins, Emily Blizzard, Luis Bazan, and Pat Whitley

Bat incidents with U.S. civil aircraft, Kristen M. Biondi, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. Devault, James A. Martin, and Guiming Wang

Managing Airport Stormwater to Reduce Attraction to Wildlife, Bradley F. Blackwell, David Felstul, and Thomas W. Seamans

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 9 Managing Airport Stormwater to Reduce Attraction to Wildlife, Bradley F. Blackwell, David Felstul, and Thomas W. Seamans

Behavior and Physiology in the Development and Application of Visual Deterrents at Airports, Bradley F. Blackwell and Esteban Fernandez-Juricic

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 2 Behavior and Physiologyin the Development and Application of Visual Deterrents at Airports, Bradley F. Blackwell and Esteban Fernandez-Juricic

Avian Survey Methods for Use at Airports, Bradley F. Blackwell, Paige M. Schmidt, and James A. Martin

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 14 Avian Survey Methods for Use at Airports, Bradley F. Blackwell, Paige M. Schmidt, and James A. Martin

A framework for managing airport grasslands and birds amidst conflicting priorities, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Paige M. Schmidt, Travis L. Devault, Jerrold L. Belant, Mark J. Whittingham, James A. Martin, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Factors affecting survival and cause-specific mortality of saiga calves in Mongolia, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Julie K. Young, Joel Berger, Amanda E. Fine, Badamjav Lkhagvasuren, Peter Zahler, and Todd K. Fuller

Changes in grouping patterns of saiga antelope in relation to intrinsic and environmental factors in Mongolia, B. Buuveibaatar, T. K. Fuller, A. E. Fine, B. Chimeddorj, J. K. Young, and J. Berger

Effectiveness and target-specificity of a novel design of food dispenser to deliver a toxin to feral swine in the United States, Tyler A. Campbell, Justin A. Foster, Michael J. Bodenchuk, John D. Eisemann, Linton Staples, and Steven J. Lapidge

Wildlife Contact Rates at Artificial Feeding Sites in Texas, Tyler Campbell, David Long, and Susan Shriner

Laboratory efficacy of an anthraquinone-based repellent for reducing bird damage to ripening corn, James C. Carlson, Shelagh K. Tupper, Scott J. Werner, Susan E. Pettit, Michele M. Santer, and George M. Linz

Costs of raccoon rabies incidents in cattle herds in Hampshire County, West Virginia, and Guernsey County, Ohio, Richard B. Chipman, Tyler W. Cozzens, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Rita Biswas, Jewell Plumley, Jeanette O'Quin, Timothy P. Algeo, Charles E. Rupprecht, and Dennis Slate

Effectiveness of Chemical Repellents In Managing Birds at Airports, Larry Clark and Michael L. Avery

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 3 Effectiveness of Chemical Repellents in Managing Birds at Airports, Larry Clark and Michael L. Avery

PREVALENCE OF AVIAN PARAMYXOVIRUS 1 AND AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS IN DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANTS (PHALACROCORAX AURITUS) IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA, Tiffanie A. Cross, D. M. Arsnoe, R. B. Minnis, D. T. King, S. Swafford, K. Pedersen, and J. C. Owen

WiIdIife Translocation as a Management Alternative at Airports, Paul D. Curtis, Jonathon D. Cepek, Rebecca Mihalco, Thomas W. Seamans, and Scott R. Craven

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 6 Wildlife Translocation as a Management Alternative at Airports, Paul D. Curtis, Jonathon D. Cepek, Rebecca Mihalco, Thomas W. Seamans, and Scott R. Craven

Effects of local-scale removals on feral swine populations in southern Texas, Johanna Delgado-Acevedo, Randy W. DeYoung, and Tyler A. Campbell

Rethinking airport land-cover paradigms: agriculture, grass, and wildlife hazards, Travis L. DeVault, Michael J. Begier, Jerrold L. Belant, Bradley F. Blackwell, Richard A. Dolbeer, James A. Martin, Thomas W. Seamans, and Brian E. Washburn

Wildlife in Airport Environments Preventing Animal-Aircraft Collisions through Science-Based Management, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, and Jerrold L. Belant

Identification and Management of Wildlife Food Resources at Airports, Travis L. DeVault and Brian E. Washburn

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 8 Identification and Management of Wildlife Food Resources at Airports, Travis L. DeVault and Brian E. Washburn

Leptospirosis in Fox Squirrels (Sciurus niger) of Larimer County, Colorado, USA, Katherine Dirsmith, Kaci VanDalen, Tricia Fry, Brad Charles, Kur t VerCauteren, and Colleen Duncan

The History of Wildlife Strikes and Management at Airports, Richard A. Dolbeer

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 1 The History of Wildlife Strikes and Management at Airports, Richard A. Dolbeer

Population Management to Reduce the Risk of WiId life-Aircraft Collisions, Richard A. Dolbeer and Alan B. Franklin

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 7 Population Management to Reduce the Risk of Wildlife-Aircraft Collisions, Richard A. Dolbeer and Alan B. Franklin

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8, Barbara S. Drolet, Lindsey M. Reister, Tara D. Rigg, Pauline Nol, Brendan K. Podell, James O. Mecham, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Piet A. van Rijn, William C. Wilson, and Richard Bowen

Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from mute swan (Cygnus olor) from the USA, J. P. Dubey, S. Choudhary, O.C.H. Kwok, L.R. Ferreira, S. Oliveira, S.K. Verma, D.R. Marks, K. Pedersen, R.M. Mickley, A.R. Randall, D. Asnoe, and C. Su

STATE-LEVEL APPROACHES TO MANAGING THE USE OF CONTRACEPTIVES IN WILDLIFE IN THE UNITED STATES, John D. Eisemann, Jeanette R. O'Hare, and Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Multidisciplinary Approach to Epizootiology and Pathogenesis of Bat Rabies Viruses in the United States, J. A. Ellison, S. R. Johnson, N. Kuzmina, A. Gilbert, W. C. Carson, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and C. E. Rupprecht

Assessing spatial variation and overall density of aerially broadcast toxic bait during a rat eradication on Palmyra Atoll, Richard Engeman, William C. Pitt, Are R. Berentsen, and John D. Eisemann

Monitoring wild pig populations: a review of methods, R. M. Engeman, G. Massei, M. Sage, and M. N. Gentle

Procedures for Identifying Infectious Prions After Passage Through the Digestive System of an Avian Species, Justin W. Fischer, Tracy A. Nichols, Gregory E. Phillips, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Could avian scavengers translocate infectious prions to disease-free areas initiating new foci of chronic wasting disease?, Justin W. Fischer, Gregory E. Phillips, Tracy A. Nichols, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

BROWNIAN BRIDGE MOVEMENT MODELS TO CHARACTERIZE BIRDS’ HOME RANGES, Justin W. Fischer, W. David Walter, and Michael L. Avery

Use of stormwater impoundments near airports by birds recognizedas hazardous to aviation safety, Brian J. Fox, Wesley B. Holland, Frank L. Boyd, Bradley F. Blackwell, and James B. Armstrong

Wild Ungulates as Disseminators of Shiga Toxin- Producing Escherichia coli in Urban Areas, Alan B. Franklin, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Hugh Maguire, Mary K. Cichon, Justin W. Fischer, Michael J. Lavelle, Amber Powell, Jeffrey Root, and Elaine Scallan

The safety of ONRAB® in select non-target wildlife, Tricia L. Fry, Kaci Van Dalen, Colleen Duncan, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Humoral immune response to oral rabies vaccination in raccoon kits: Problems and implications, Tricia L. Fry, Kaci Van Dalen, Susan A. Shriner, Susan M. Moore, Cathleen A. Hanlon, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

Wildlife in Airport Environments: Chapter 13 Radar Technology to Monitor Hazardous Birds at Airports, Sidney A. Gauthreaux Jr. and Paige M. Schmidt

The Influence of Snowmobile Trails on Coyote Movements during Winter in High-Elevation Landscapes, Eric M. Gese, Jennifer L. B. Dowd, and Lise M. Aubry

Deciphering Serology to Understand the Ecology of Infectious Diseases in Wildlife, Amy Gilbert, A. R. Fooks, D. T. Hayman, D. L. Horton, T. Muller, R. Plowright, A. J. Peel, R. Bowen, J. L. Wood, J. Miils, A. A. Cunningham, and C. E. Rupprecht

The Effect of Social Hierarchy on Captive Coyote (Canis latrans) Foraging Behavior, Lynne B. Gilbert-Norton, Ryan R. Wilson, and John A. Shivik

Determination of an Immunocontraceptive Peptide in a Wildlife Vaccine Formulation, David A. Goldade, Jeffrey M. Kemp, Jeanetter R. O'Hare, and Lowell A. Miller