National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."


Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 11. Rattus rattus, the Black Rat (Rodentia: Muridae), Aaron B. Shiels, William C. Pitt, Robert T. Sugihara, and Gary W. Witmer

Animal Attendance at M-44 Sodium Cyanide Ejector Sites for Coyotes, John A. Shivik, Lauren Mastro, and Julie K. Young

Spatial Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Dairy Cattle in Relation to Night Roosts Of Sturnus vulgaris (European Starling) in Ohio, USA (2007–2009), A. L. Swirski, D. L. Pearl, M. L. Williams, H. J. Homan, G. M. Linz, N. Cernicchiaro, and J. T. LeJeune

The Evolution of Flow Devices Used to Reduce Flooding by Beavers: A Review, Jimmy D. Taylor and Russell D. Singleton

European starling feeding activity on repellent treated crops and pellets, Shelagh K. Tupper, Scott J. Werner, James C. Carlson, Susan E. Pettit, John C. Wise, Catherine A. Lindell, and George M. Linz

Right Place, Wrong Species: A 20-Year Review of Rabies Virus Cross Species Transmission among Terrestrial Mammals in the United States, Ryan M. Wallace, Amy Gilbert, Dennis Slate, Richard Chipman, Amber Singh, Cassie Wedd, and Jesse D. Blanton

Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis, W. David Walter, Rick Smith, Mike Vanderklok, and Kurt C. VerCauteren


Wildlife Strikes With Military Rotary-Wing Aircraft During Flight Operations Within the United States, Brian E. Washburn, Paul J. Cisar, and Travis L. DeVault

WINTERING ECOLOGY OF ADULT NORTH AMERICAN OSPREYS, Brian E. Washburn, Mark S. Martell, Richard O. Bierregaard Jr., Charles J. Henny, Brian S. Dorr, and Thomas J. Olexa

Functional Significance of Ultraviolet Feeding Cues in Wild Turkeys, Scott J. Werner, Richard Buchholz, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. Pettit, and Jeremy W. Ellis

Synergistic effect of an ultraviolet feeding cue for an avianrepellent and protection of agricultural crops, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Susan E. Pettit, and Anna M. Mangan

Perceived impacts of wild turkeys and management techniques for Wisconsin ginseng production, Scott J. Werner, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Julie L. Elser, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Susan E. Pettit, Jason Suckow, Robert C. Willging, Jim A. Tharman, and Joe Heil

Application Strategies for an Anthraquinone-Based Repellent to Protect Oilseed Sunflower Crops from Pest Blackbirds, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh K. Tupper, Susan E. Pettit, Jeremy W. Ellis, James C. Carlson, David A. Goldade, Nicholas M. Hofmann, H. Jeffrey Homan, and George M. Linz

Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa, Brianna M. Williams, Are Berentsen, Barbara C. Shock, Maria Teixiera, Michael R. Dunbar, Matthew S. Becker, and Michael J. Yabsley

New Rodenticides: An Update on Recent Research Trials, Gary Witmer, Katherine Horak, and Rachel Moulton

Evaluating Habitat Manipulations and Rodenticides to Protect Seedlings from Rodent Damage at Restored Landfills in New York, Gary W. Witmer

An efficacy test of cholecalciferol plus diphacinone rodenticide baits for California voles (Microtus californicus Peale) to replace ineffective chlorophacinone baits, Gary W. Witmer, Rachael S. Moulton, and Roger A. Baldwin

Responses by wild house mice (Mus musculus) to variousstimuli in a novel environment, Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, and Rachael S. Moulton

Responses by wild house mice (Mus musculus) to variousstimuli in a novel environment, Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, and Rachael S. Moulton


Intraguild relationships between sympatric predators exposed to lethal control: predator manipulation experiments, Benjamin L. Allen, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, and Luke K.-P. Leung

As clear as mud: A critical review of evidence for the ecological roles of Australian dingoes, Benjamin L. Allen, Peter J.S. Fleming, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Guy Ballard, and Luke K.-P. Leung

As clear as mud: A critical review of evidence for the ecological roles of Australian dingoes, Benjamin L.R. Allen, Peter J.S. Fleming, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, Guy Ballard, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Frequent Cross-Species Transmission of Parvoviruses among Diverse Carnivore Hosts, Andrew B. Allison, Dennis J. Kohler, Karen A. Fox, Justin D. Brown, Richard W. Gerhold, Valerie I. Shearn-Bochsler, Edward J. Dubovi, Colin R. Parrish, and Edward C. Holmes

Spillover Benefits of Wildlife Management to Support Pheasant Populations, Aaron Anderson, Karen Gerhardt, Wylie T. Cross, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Bird damage to select fruit crops: The cost of damage and the benefits of control in five states, Aaron M. Anderson, C.A. Lindell, Karen M. Moxcey, W.F. Siemer, George M. Linz, P.D. Curtis, J.E. Carroll, C.L. Burrows, Jason R. Boulanger, K.M.M. Steensma, and Stpehanie A. Shwiff

The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents, A. Anderson and S. A. Shwiff

IMMUNOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL RESPONSE OF COYOTES (CANIS LATRANS) TO EXPERIMENTAL INOCULATION WITH YERSINIA PESTIS, Laurie A. Baeten, Ryan Pappert, John Young, Martin E. Schriefer, Thomas Gidlewski, Dennis Kohler, and Richard A. Bowen

The influence of trap type and cover status on capture rates of pocket gophers in California, Roger A. Baldwin, Daniel B. Marcum, Steve B. Orloff, Stephen J. Vasquez, Cheryl A. Wilen, and Richard Engeman

Effectiveness of cattle operated bump gates and exclusion fences in preventing ungulate multi-host sanitary interaction, J.A. Barasona, K.C. VerCauteren, N. Saklou, C. Gortazar, and J. Vicente

Use of patch selection models as a decision support tool to evaluate mitigation strategies of human–wildlife conflict, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Colleen T. Webb, Stewart W. Breck, and Kenneth R. Wilson

Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds in Brucella abortus- Seropositive Bison, Alona Bayn, Pauline Nol, Ulrike Tisch, Jack Rhyan, Christine K. Ellis, and Hossam Haick

Conclusions and Future Directions, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, and Bradley F. Blackwell

Understanding Animal Movements at and near Airports, Jerrold L. Belant, Brian E. Washburn, and Travis L. DeVault

Rabies, Canine Distemper, and Canine Parvovirus Exposure in Large Carnivore Communities from Two Zambian Ecosystems, Are R. Berentsen, Mike R. Dunbar, Matthew S. Becker, Jassiel M'soka, Egil Droge, Nicholas M. Sakuya, Wigganson Matandiko, Rachel McRobb, and Cathleen A. Hanlon

Spatial Ecology of Urban Raccoons in Northeastern Ohio: Implications for Oral Rabies Vaccination, Are R. Berentsen, Mike R. Dunbar, Chadd E. Fitzpatrick, and W. David Walter

Neospora caninum Exposure in Overlapping Populations of Coyotes (Canis latrans) and Feral Swine (Sus scrofa), Sarah Bevins, Emily Blizzard, Luis Bazan, and Pat Whitley

Bat incidents with U.S. civil aircraft, Kristen M. Biondi, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. Devault, James A. Martin, and Guiming Wang

Managing Airport Stormwater to Reduce Attraction to Wildlife, Bradley F. Blackwell, David Felstul, and Thomas W. Seamans

Behavior and Physiology in the Development and Application of Visual Deterrents at Airports, Bradley F. Blackwell and Esteban Fernandez-Juricic

Avian Survey Methods for Use at Airports, Bradley F. Blackwell, Paige M. Schmidt, and James A. Martin

A framework for managing airport grasslands and birds amidst conflicting priorities, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Paige M. Schmidt, Travis L. Devault, Jerrold L. Belant, Mark J. Whittingham, James A. Martin, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Factors affecting survival and cause-specific mortality of saiga calves in Mongolia, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Julie K. Young, Joel Berger, Amanda E. Fine, Badamjav Lkhagvasuren, Peter Zahler, and Todd K. Fuller

Changes in grouping patterns of saiga antelope in relation to intrinsic and environmental factors in Mongolia, B. Buuveibaatar, T. K. Fuller, A. E. Fine, B. Chimeddorj, J. K. Young, and J. Berger

Effectiveness and target-specificity of a novel design of food dispenser to deliver a toxin to feral swine in the United States, Tyler A. Campbell, Justin A. Foster, Michael J. Bodenchuk, John D. Eisemann, Linton Staples, and Steven J. Lapidge

Wildlife Contact Rates at Artificial Feeding Sites in Texas, Tyler Campbell, David Long, and Susan Shriner

Laboratory efficacy of an anthraquinone-based repellent for reducing bird damage to ripening corn, James C. Carlson, Shelagh K. Tupper, Scott J. Werner, Susan E. Pettit, Michele M. Santer, and George M. Linz

Costs of raccoon rabies incidents in cattle herds in Hampshire County, West Virginia, and Guernsey County, Ohio, Richard B. Chipman, Tyler W. Cozzens, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Rita Biswas, Jewell Plumley, Jeanette O'Quin, Timothy P. Algeo, Charles E. Rupprecht, and Dennis Slate

Effectiveness of Chemical Repellents In Managing Birds at Airports, Larry Clark and Michael L. Avery


WiIdIife Translocation as a Management Alternative at Airports, Paul D. Curtis, Jonathon D. Cepek, Rebecca Mihalco, Thomas W. Seamans, and Scott R. Craven

Effects of local-scale removals on feral swine populations in southern Texas, Johanna Delgado-Acevedo, Randy W. DeYoung, and Tyler A. Campbell

Rethinking airport land-cover paradigms: agriculture, grass, and wildlife hazards, Travis L. DeVault, Michael J. Begier, Jerrold L. Belant, Bradley F. Blackwell, Richard A. Dolbeer, James A. Martin, Thomas W. Seamans, and Brian E. Washburn

Identification and Management of Wildlife Food Resources at Airports, Travis L. DeVault and Brian E. Washburn

Leptospirosis in Fox Squirrels (Sciurus niger) of Larimer County, Colorado, USA, Katherine Dirsmith, Kaci VanDalen, Tricia Fry, Brad Charles, Kur t VerCauteren, and Colleen Duncan

The History of Wildlife Strikes and Management at Airports, Richard A. Dolbeer

Population Management to Reduce the Risk of WiId life-Aircraft Collisions, Richard A. Dolbeer and Alan B. Franklin

Experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Northern European bluetongue virus serotype 8, Barbara S. Drolet, Lindsey M. Reister, Tara D. Rigg, Pauline Nol, Brendan K. Podell, James O. Mecham, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Piet A. van Rijn, William C. Wilson, and Richard Bowen

Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from mute swan (Cygnus olor) from the USA, J. P. Dubey, S. Choudhary, O.C.H. Kwok, L.R. Ferreira, S. Oliveira, S.K. Verma, D.R. Marks, K. Pedersen, R.M. Mickley, A.R. Randall, D. Asnoe, and C. Su


Multidisciplinary Approach to Epizootiology and Pathogenesis of Bat Rabies Viruses in the United States, J. A. Ellison, S. R. Johnson, N. Kuzmina, A. Gilbert, W. C. Carson, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and C. E. Rupprecht

Assessing spatial variation and overall density of aerially broadcast toxic bait during a rat eradication on Palmyra Atoll, Richard Engeman, William C. Pitt, Are R. Berentsen, and John D. Eisemann

Monitoring wild pig populations: a review of methods, R. M. Engeman, G. Massei, M. Sage, and M. N. Gentle

Procedures for Identifying Infectious Prions After Passage Through the Digestive System of an Avian Species, Justin W. Fischer, Tracy A. Nichols, Gregory E. Phillips, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Could avian scavengers translocate infectious prions to disease-free areas initiating new foci of chronic wasting disease?, Justin W. Fischer, Gregory E. Phillips, Tracy A. Nichols, and Kurt C. VerCauteren


Use of stormwater impoundments near airports by birds recognizedas hazardous to aviation safety, Brian J. Fox, Wesley B. Holland, Frank L. Boyd, Bradley F. Blackwell, and James B. Armstrong

Wild Ungulates as Disseminators of Shiga Toxin- Producing Escherichia coli in Urban Areas, Alan B. Franklin, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Hugh Maguire, Mary K. Cichon, Justin W. Fischer, Michael J. Lavelle, Amber Powell, Jeffrey Root, and Elaine Scallan

The safety of ONRAB® in select non-target wildlife, Tricia L. Fry, Kaci Van Dalen, Colleen Duncan, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Humoral immune response to oral rabies vaccination in raccoon kits: Problems and implications, Tricia L. Fry, Kaci Van Dalen, Susan A. Shriner, Susan M. Moore, Cathleen A. Hanlon, and Kurt C. Vercauteren

The Influence of Snowmobile Trails on Coyote Movements during Winter in High-Elevation Landscapes, Eric M. Gese, Jennifer L. B. Dowd, and Lise M. Aubry

Deciphering Serology to Understand the Ecology of Infectious Diseases in Wildlife, Amy Gilbert, A. R. Fooks, D. T. Hayman, D. L. Horton, T. Muller, R. Plowright, A. J. Peel, R. Bowen, J. L. Wood, J. Miils, A. A. Cunningham, and C. E. Rupprecht

The Effect of Social Hierarchy on Captive Coyote (Canis latrans) Foraging Behavior, Lynne B. Gilbert-Norton, Ryan R. Wilson, and John A. Shivik

Determination of an Immunocontraceptive Peptide in a Wildlife Vaccine Formulation, David A. Goldade, Jeffrey M. Kemp, Jeanetter R. O'Hare, and Lowell A. Miller

Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian Bornavirus Isolated from a Healthy Canadian Goose (Branta canadensis), Jianhua Guo, John Baroch, Adam Randall, and Ian Tizard

Report to the City of Chicago on Conflicts with Ring-billed Gulls and the 2012 Integrated Ring-billed Gull Damage Management Project, J.W. Hartmann, S.F. Beckerman, Richard M. Engeman, and T.W. Seamans

Report to the Chicago Park District on Conflicts with Ring-billed Gulls and the 2013 Integrated Ring-billed Gull Damage Management Project, J. W. Hartmann, T. G. Guerrant, S. F. Beckerman, R. M. Engeman, and T. W. Seamans

Ecology of Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Bats: Current Knowledge and Future Directions, D. T. S. Hayman, R. A. Bowen, P. M. Cryan, G. M. McCracken, T. J. O'Shea, A. J. Peel, A. Gilbert, C. T. Webb, and J. L. N. Wood

Effects of Deer Density and Land Use on Mass of White-Tailed Deer, Trevor J. Hefley, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Jason M. Gilsdorf, Gregory M. Clements, Myndi J. Clements, Andrew J. Tyre, David M. Baasch, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Deer-activated bioacoustic frightening device deters white-tailed deer, Aaron M. Hildreth, Scott E. Hygnstrom, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

An analytical framework for quantifying and testing patterns of temporal dynamics in social networks, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Michael L. Avery, and Timothy F. Wright

Use of dairies by postreproductive flocks of European starlings, H. Jeffrey Homan, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, D. L. Pearl, T. W. Seamans, Thomas W. Seamans, A.A. Slowik, Mark R. Morasch, and George M. Linz

Comparison of two models for estimating mortality from baitings with Compound DRC-1339 Concentrate avicide, H. Jeffrey Homan, Randal S. Stahl, and George M. Linz

Use of dairies by postreproductive flocks of European starlings, H. J. Homan, Jeffrey T. LeJeune, David L. Pearl, T. W. Seamans, A. A. Slowik, Mark R. Morasch, and G. M. Linz

Comparison of two models for estimating mortality from baitings with Compound DRC-1339 Concentrate avicide, Jeffrey H. Homan, Randal S. Stahl, and George M. Linz

Stream hierarchy defines riverscape genetics of a North American desert fish, Matthew W. Hopken, Marlis R. Douglas, and Michael E. Douglas

Why Can’t Rodents Vomit? A Comparative Behavioral, Anatomical, and Physiological Study, Charles C. Horn, Bruce A. Kimball, Hong Wang, James Kaus, Samuel Dienel, Allysa Nagy, Gordon R. Gathright, Bill J. Yates, and Paul L. R. Andrews

Isolation and molecular characterization of Fikirini rhabdovirus, a novel virus from a Kenyan bat, Rebekah C. Kading, Amy T. Gilbert, Eric C. Mossel, Mary B. Crabtree, Ivan V. Kuzmin, Michael Niezgoda, Bernard Agwanda, Wanda Markotter, M. Ryan Weil, Joel M. Montgomery, Charles E. Rupprecht, and Barry R. Miller

TUPINAMBIS MERIANAE(Argentine Giant Tegu); PANTHERO- PHIS GUTTATUS (Red Cornsnake). NON-PREDATORY KILLING, Bernard W. Kaiser, Kimberly J. Osorio, Kevin M. Enge, and Richard M. Engeman

Avian Influenza Infection Alters Fecal Odor in Mallards, Bruce A. Kimball, Kunio Yamazaki, Dennis Kohler, Richard A. Bowen, Jack P. Muth, Maryanne Opiekun, and Gary K. Beauchamp

Home Ranges and Habitat Use of Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, D. Tommy King, Buddy L. Goatchter, Justin W. Fischer, John Stanton, James M. Lacour, Scott C. Lemmons, and Guiming Wang

Comparisons between blackbird damage to corn and sunflower in North Dakota, Megan E. Klosterman, George M. Linz, Anthony Slowik, and H. Jeffrey Homan

A Comparison of Methods for Monitoring Kit Foxes at Den Sites, Bryan M. Kluever, Eric M. Gese, Steven J. Dempsey, and Robert N. Knight

Assessing wolves and cougars as conservation surrogates, Kyran E. Kunkel, T. C. Atwood, T. K. Ruth, Daniel H. Pletscher, and M. G. Hornocker

Characterization of Regionally Associated Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in Bobcats (Lynx rufus), Danielle M. Lagana, Justin S. Lee, Jesse S. Lewis, Sarah N. Bevins, Scott Carver, Linda L. Sweanor, Roy McBride, Caleb McBride, Kevin R. Crooks, and Sue VandeWoude

Feral swine brucellosis in the United States and prospective genomic techniques for disease epidemiology, Owen P. Leiser, Joseph L. Corn, Brandon S. Schmit, Paul S. Keim, and Jeffrey T. Foster

Feral cat management, Christopher A. Lepcyzk, Sheila Conant, David Duffy, David M. Bird, Michael Calver, Fern P. Duval, Michael Hutchins, Cheryl A. Lohr, Kerrie Anne Loyd, Peter P. Marra, William C. Pitt, Grant Sizemore, Rachel Sprague, Stanley A. Temple, Yolanda van Heezik, and George Wallace

Demonstration of Avian Control® bird repellent (a.i., methyl anthranilate) for managing blackbird damage to ripening sunflower., George M. Linz and H. Jeffrey Homan

Avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada: which species, how many, and where?, Travis Longcore, Catherine Rich, Pierre Mineau, Beau MacDonald, Daniel G. Bert, Lauren M. Sullivan, Erin Mutrie, Sidney A. Gauthreaux Jr., Michael L. Avery, Robert L. Crawford, Albert M. Manville II, Emilie R. Travis, and David Drake

A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?, Angela D. Luis, David T. S. Hayman, Thomas J. O'Shea, Paul M. Cryan, Amy T. Gilbert, Juliet R. C. Pulliam, James N. Mills, Mary E. Timonin, Craig K. R. Willis, Andrew A. Cunningham, Anthony R. Fooks, Charles E. Rupprecht, James L. N. Wood, and Colleen T. Webb