National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."

2015

Predator-induced renesting and reproductive effort in indigo buntings: more work for less pay?, Dana L. Morris, John Faaborg, Brian E. Washburn, and Joshua J. Millspaugh

Novel Paramyxoviruses in Bats from Sub-Saharan Africa, 2007–2012, Marinda Mortlock, Ivan V. Kuzmin, Jacqueline Weyer, Amy T. Gilbert, Bernard Agwanda, Charles E. Rupprecht, Louis H. Nel, Teresa Kearney, Jean M. Malekani, and Wanda Markotter

Demographic and Spatiotemporal Patterns of Avian Influenza Infection at the Continental Scale, and in Relation to Annual Life Cycle of a Migratory Host, Rodolfo Nallar, Zsuzsanna Papp, Tasha Epp, Frederick A. Leighton, Seth R. Swafford, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Robert J. Dusek, Hon S. Ip, Jeffrey Hall, Yohannes Berhane, Samantha E.J. Gibbs, and Catherine Soos

CWD prions remain infectious after passage through the digestive system of coyotes (Canis latrans), Tracy A. Nichols, Justin W. Fischer, Terry R. Spraker, Qingzhong Kong, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Evaluation of 9,10 anthraquinone application to pre-seed set sunflowers for repelling blackbirds, Megan D. Niner, George M. Linz, and Mark E. Clark

Establishing a definition of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health: A guide to research and management activities, Kelly A. Park, Colleen Duncan, Pauline Noi, Christian Sonne, Kristin Laidre, Martyn Obbard, Oystein Wiig, Jon Aars, Eric Regehr, Lori L. Gustafson, and Todd Atwood

Widespread detection of antibodies to Leptospira in feral swine in the United States, K. Pedersen, K. L. Pabilonia, T. D. Anderson, S. N. Bevins, C. R. Hicks, J. M. Kloft, and Thomas J. Deliberto

Contact heterogeneities in feral swine: implications for disease management and future research, Kim M. Pepin, Amy J. Davis, James C. Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Tyler Campbell, Susan M. Cooper, Wesson D. Gaston, Steve Hartley, John C. Kilgo, Samantha M. Wisely, A. Christy Wyckoff, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Utility of mosquito surveillance data for spatial prioritization of vector control against dengue viruses in three Brazilian cities, Kim M. Pepin, Clint B. Leach, Cecilia Marques-Toledo, Karla H. Laass, Kelly S. Paixao, Angela D. Luis, David T.S. Hayman, Nels D. Johnson, Michael G. Buhnerkempe, Scott Carver, Daniel A. Grear, Kimberly Tsao, Alvaro E. Eiras, and Colleen T. Webb

Evaluating landowner-based beaver relocation as a tool to restore salmon habitat, V. M. Petro, J. D. Taylor, and D. M. Sanchez

Non-target species mortality and the measurement of brodifacoum rodenticide residues after a rat (Rattus rattus) eradication on Palmyra Atoll, tropical Pacific, William C. Pitt, Are R. Berentsen, Aaron B. Shiels, Steven F. Volker, John D. Eisemann, Alexander S. Wegmann, and Gregg R. Howald

Effect of travel distance, home range, and bait on the management of small Indian mongooses, Herpestes auropunctatus, William C. Pitt, Robert T. Sugihara, and Are R. Berentsen

Anticoagulant Rodenticide Exposure and Toxicosis in Coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area, Sharon A. Poessel, Stewart W. Breck, Karen A. Fox, and Eric M. Gese

Improving the odds: Assessing bait availability before rodent eradications to aid in selecting bait application rates, Madeleine Pott, Alexander S. Wegmann, Richard Griffiths, Araceli Samaniego-Herrera, Richard J. Cuthbert, M. de L. Brooke, William C. Pitt, Are R. Berentsen, Nick D. Holmes, Gregg R. Howald, Karina Ramos-Rendon, and James C. Russell

Serologic Survey of Snowshoe Hares (Lepus americanus) in the Greater Yellowstone Area for Brucellosis, Tularemia, and Snowshoe Hare Virus, Jack Rhyan, Dan Tyers, Jeremy Zimmer, Kristen Lewandowski, Steve Hennager, John Young, Ryan Pappert, Amanda Panella, and Olga Kosoy

Evaluation of Resident Canada Goose Movements to Reduce the Risk of Goose-Aircraft Collisions at Suburban Airports, M. Elizabeth Rutledge, Christopher E. Moorman, Brian E. Washburn, and Christopher S. Deperno

Evaluation of Resident Canada Goose Movements to Reduce the Risk of Goose- Aircraft Collisions at Suburban Airports, M. Elizabeth Rutledge, Christopher E. Moorman, Brian E. Washburn, and Christopher S. Deperno

AN INDIVIDUAL-BASED MODEL FOR FERAL HOGS IN GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK, Rene A. Salinas, William H. Stiver, Joseph L. Corn, Suzanne Lenhart, Charles Collins, Marguerite Madden, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Brandon B. Schmit, Ellen Kasari, Agricola Odoi, Graham Hickling, and Hamish McCallum

Assessing Chemical Control of Earthworms at Airports, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Glen E. Bernhardt, and Daniel A. Potter

The effects of radar on avian behavior: Implications for wildlife management at airports, Eleanor Sheridan, Jacquelyn Randolet, Travis Lee DeVault, Thomas Walter Seamans, Bradley Fields Blackwell, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Barriers to seed and seedling survival of once-common Hawaiian palms: the role of invasive rats and ungulates, Aaron B. Shiels and Donald R. Drake

Tropical Forest Responses to Large-Scale Experiments, Aaron B. Shiels and Grizelle Gonzalez

Cascading Effects of Canopy Opening and Debris Deposition from a Large-Scale Hurricane Experiment in a Tropical Rain Forest, Aaron B. Shiels, Grizelle Gonzalez, D. Jean Lodge, Michael R. Willig, and Jess K. Zimmerman

Modeling the economic impacts of double-crested cormorant damage to a recreational fishery, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Travis L. DeVault, and Steven S. Shwiff

To cross or not to cross: modeling wildlife road crossings as a binary response variable with contextual predictors, Shane R. Siers, Robert N. Reed, and Julie A. Savidge

EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC FISHMEAL POLYMER BAITS FOR THE CONTROL OF BAYLISASCARIS PROCYONIS IN FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR), Timothy J. Smyser, Shylo R. Johnson, Melissa D. Stallard, Ashley K. McGrew, L. Kristen Page, Nikki Crider, Lora R. Ballweber, Robert K. Swihart, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease, Terry R. Spraker, Thomas Gidlewski, Jenny G. Powers, Tracy Nichols, Aru Balachandran, Bruce Cummings, Margaret A. Wild, Kurt VerCauteren, and Katherine I. O’Rourke

Fecal Volatile Organic Ccompound Profiles from White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as Indicators of Mycobacterium bovis Exposure or Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccination, Randal S. Stahl, Christine K. Ellis, Pauline Nol, W. Ray Waters, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Review of the 2012 Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in Domestic Ruminants in the United States, G Stevens, B McCluskey, A King, E O'Hearn, and G Mayr

Dynamics of virus shedding and antibody responses in influenza A virus-infected feral swine, Hailiang Sun, Fred L. Cunningham, Jillian Harris, Yifei Xu, Li-Ping Long, Katie Hanson-Dorr, John A. Baroch, Paul Fioranelli, Mark W. Lutman, Tao Li, Kerri Pedersen, Brandon S. Schmit, Jim Cooley, Xiaoxu Lin, Richard G. Jarman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

FLIGHT FEATHER MOLT IN YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRDS (XANTHOCEPHALUS XANTHOCEPHALUS) IN NORTH DAKOTA, Daniel J. Twedt and George M. Linz

Threats to humans and beasts, Kurt C. VerCauteren

COLLISIONS BETWEEN EAGLES AND AIRCRAFT: AN INCREASING PROBLEM IN THE AIRPORT ENVIRONMENT, Brian E. Washburn, Michael J. Begier, and Sandra E. Wright

Anthraquinone-based repellent for horned larks, great-tailed grackles, American crows and the protection of California's specialty crops, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Anna M. Mangan, Susan E. Pettit, Jeremy W. Ellis, and James C. Carlson

Efficacy of potential chemical control compounds for removing invasive American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, and Rachael S. Moulton

Is anthropogenic cougar mortality compensated by changes in natural mortality in Utah? Insight from long-term studies, Michael L. Wolfe, David N. Koons, David C. Stoner, Patricia Terletzky, Eric M. Gese, David M. Choate, and Lise M. Aubry

Is anthropogenic cougar mortality compensated by changes in natural mortality in Utah? Insight from long-term studies, Michael L. Wolfe, David N. Koons, David C. Stoner, Patricia Terletzky, Eric M. Gese, David M. Choate, and Lise M. Aubry

Prion Amplification and Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling Refine Detection of Prion Infection, A. Christy Wyckoff, Nathan Galloway, Crystal Meyerett-Reid, Jenny Powers, Terry Spraker, Ryan J. Monello, Bruce Pulford, Margaret Wild, Michael Antolin, Kurt VerCauteren, and Mark Zabel

Human–Carnivore Interactions: Lessons Learned from Communities in the American West, Julie K. Young, Zhao Ma, Ann Laudati, and Joel Berger

2014

Impacts of Invasive Species on Ecosystem Energy Flow on the Big Island of Hawai'i: Excuse Me, But Are You Going to Eat That Cane Toad?, Erin F. Abernethy, Kelsey L. Turner, James C. Beasley, Travis L. DeVault, William C. Pitt, and Olin E. Rhodes

Predicted Wildlife Disease-Related Climate Change Impacts of Specific Concern to USDA APHIS Wildlife Services, Timothy P. Algeo, Richard B. Chipman, Dennis Slate, Jerome E. Freier, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Sympatric prey responses to lethal top-predator control: predator manipulation experiments, Benjamin L. Allen, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Does lethal control of top-predators release mesopredators? A re-evaluation of three Australian case studies, Benjamin L. Allen, Geoff Lundie-Jenkins, Neil D. Burrows, Richard M. Engeman, Peter J.S. Fleming, and Luke K.-P. Leung

The Short-Term Effects of a Routine Poisoning Campaign on the Movements and Detectability of a Social Top-Predator., B l. Allen, R. M. Engeman, and L. K-P. Leung

Economic Analysis of Indemnity Payments for Wolf Depredation on Cattle in a Wolf Reintroduction Area, Aaron Anderson, Karen Gebhardt, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, David L. Bergman, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Forecasting the spread of raccoon rabies using a purpose-specific group decision-making process., Aaron M. Anderson, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Richard B. Chipman, Todd C. Atwood, Tyler Cozzens, Frank Fillo, Robert Hale, Brody Hatch, Joanne Maki, Olin E. Rhodes, Erin E. Rees, Charles E. Rupprecht, Rowland Tinline, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and Dennis Slate

Economic Impact of the Potential Spread of Vampire Bats into South Texas, Aaron Anderson, Steven S. Shwiff, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Invasive Myna Control in American Samoa, Michael L. Avery and John D. Eisemann

Detection and Removal of Invasive Burmese Pythons: Methods Development Update, Michael L. Avery, John S. Humphrey, Kandy L. Keacher, and W. Eddie Bruce

Invasive black spiny-tailed iguanas (Ctenosaura similis) on Gasparilla Island, Florida, USA, Michael L. Avery, Eric A. Tillman, Conny Spurfeld, Richard M. Engeman, Kelin P. Maciejewski, Jessica D. Brown, and Emily A. Fetzer

Effectiveness of Rodenticides for Managing Invasive Roof Rats and Native Deer Mice in Orchards, Roger A. Baldwin, Niamh Quinn, David H. Davis, and Richard M. Engeman

Exposure of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States to selected pathogens, John A. Baroch, Carl A. Gagnon, Sonia Lacouture, and Marcelo Gottschalk

Stochasticity in Natural Forage Production Affects Use of Urban Areas by Black Bears: Implications to Management of Human-Bear Conflicts, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Kenneth R. Wilson, David L. Lewis, John Broderick, Julie S. Mao, and Stewart W. Breck

Preference among 7 bait flavors delivered to domestic dogs in Arizona: Implications for oral rabies vaccination on the Navajo Nation, Are R. Berentsen, Scott C. Bender, David Bergman, Krista Hausig, and Kurt Vercauteren

Evaluation of 6 ONRAB Ultralite bait flavor matrices delivered to coyotes (Canis latrans): Implications for oral rabies vaccination, Are R. Berentsen, Stacey P. Brummer, Julie K. Young, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Bait matrix flavor preference by mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) in Puerto Rico: Implications for Oral Rabies Vaccination, Are R. Berentsen, Shylo R. Johnson, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Characteristics of White-Tailed Deer Visits to Cattle Farms: Implications for Disease Transmission at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface, Are R. Berentsen, Ryan S. Miller, Jennifer L. Malmberg, and Mike R. Dunbar

Longevity of Rodenticide Bait Pellets in a Tropical Environment Following a Rat Eradication Program, Are R. Berentsen, William C. Pitt, John D. Eisemann, and Richard M. Engeman

Large-Scale Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds throughout the United States, Sarah N. Bevins, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, John A. Baroch, Brandon S. Schmit, Dennis Kohler, Thomas Gidlewski, Dale L. Nolte, Seth R. Swafford, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Consequences Associated with the Recent Range Expansion of Nonnative Feral Swine, Sarah N. Bevins, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, Thomas Gidlewski, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

OSPREYS (PANDION HALIAETUS) IN THE 21ST CENTURY: POPULATIONS, MIGRATION, MANAGEMENT, AND RESEARCH PRIORITIES, Richard O. Bierregaard, Alan F. Poole, and Brian E. Washburn

Integrating mammalian hazards with management at U.S. civil airports: a case study., Kristin M. Biondi, Jerrold L. Belant, James A. Martin, Travis L. DeVault, and Guiming Wang

White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger, Bradley F. Blackwelll, Thomas W. Seamans, and Travis L. DeVault

Report to the Chicago Park District on Conflicts with Ring-billed Gulls and the 2014 Integrated Ring-billed Gull Damage Management Project, M.L. Bloomquist, J.W. Hartmann, T.G. Guerrant, S.F. Beckerman, and R. M. Engeman

The Influence of Study Species Selection on Estimates of Pesticide Exposure in Free-Ranging Birds, Shannon Borges, Nimish B. Vyas, and Mary Christman

New species records and changes in abundance of waterfowl in northwest Greenland, K. K. Burnham, D. R. Sinnett, J. A. Johnson, J. L. Burnham, and J. A. Baroch

Calving location selection patterns of saiga antelope in Mongolia, B. Buuveibaatar, T. K. Fuller, J. K. Young, and J. Berger

Population Dynamics of Double-Crested Cormorants in Two Interior Breeding Areas, Jennifer E. Chastant, D. Tommy King, D.V. Chip Weseloh, and David J. Moore

Disease Risks ·Posed by Wild Birds Associated with Agricultural Landscapes, Larry Clark

The Chemical Senses in Birds, Larry Clark, Julie Hagelin, and Scott Werner

Risk Factors Associated with Enteric Septicemia of Catfish on Mississippi Commercial Catfish Farms, Fred L. Cunningham, S. W. Jack, David Hardin, and Robert W. Wills

Incorporating Cold-Air Pooling into Downscaled Climate Models Increases Potential Refugia for Snow-Dependent Species within the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion, CA, Jennifer A. Curtis, Lorraine E. Flint, Alan L. Flint, Jessica D. Lundquist, Brian Hudgens, Erin E. Boydston, and Julie K. Young

EXPLORING THE ROLE OF OSPREYS IN EDUCATION, Rebecca Cushing and Brian E. Washburn

Finding a Fox: An Evaluation of Survey Methods to Estimate Abundance of a Small Desert Carnivore, Steven J. Dempsey, Eric M. Gese, and Bryan M. Kluever

Review of Wildlife Damage Management: Prevention, Problem Solving and Conflict Resolution, Travis L. DeVault

Effects of Vehicle Speed on Flight Initiation by Turkey Vultures: Implications for Bird-Vehicle Collisions, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, and Esteban Fernandez-Juricic

Speed kills: ineffective avian escape responses to oncoming vehicles, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, and Esteban Fernandez-Juricic

Influence of egg oiling on colony presence of ring-billed gulls, Travis L. DeVault, Paige M. Schmidt, Fred E. Pogmore, John Gobeille, Jerrold L. Belant, and Thomas W. Seamans

Bird Use of Solar Photovoltaic Installations at US Airports: Implications for Aviation Safety, Travis L. DeVault, Thomas W. Seamans, Jason A. Schmidt, Jerrold L. Belant, Bradley F. Blackwell, Nicole Mooers, Laura A. Tyson, and Lolita VanPelt

Geographic segregation and evidence of density-dependent changes in sex ratios in an abundant colonial waterbird, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Travis L. DeVault, Alban Guillaumet, and Scott C. Barras

Winter Space Use of Coyotes in High-Elevation Environments: Behavioral Adaptations to Deep-Snow Landscapes, Jennifer L.B. Dowd, Eric M. Gese, and Lise M. Aubry

Interactions Between Wildlife and Civil Aircraft in Mississippi, Kelsey M. Drey, James A. Martin, Jerrold L. Belant, Travis L. DeVault, and Bradley F. Blackwell

Effects of Vaccination against GDF9 and BMP15 on Fertility and Ovarian Function in the White-tailed Deer, Douglas C. Eckery, Lowell A. Miller, Gary J. Killian, and Anthony J. DeNicola

Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) Dispersal by European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), Ryan J. Edwards, Larry C. Clark, and K. George Beck

A Pilot Study Exploring the Use of Breath Analysis to Differentiate Healthy Cattle from Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis, Christine K. Ellis, Randal S. Stahl, Pauline Nol, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Matthew McCollum, and M. D. Salman

Bat Rabies in Guatemala, James E. Ellison, Amy T. Gilbert, Sergio Recuenco, David Moran, Danilo A. Alvarez, Natalia Kuzmina, Daniel L. Garcia, Leonard F. Peruski, Mary T. Mendonca, Kim A. Lindblade, and Charles E. Rupprecht

Weighing empirical and hypothetical evidence for assessing potential invasive species range limits: a review of the case of Burmese pythons in the USA, Richard Engeman, Michael L. Avery, and Elliot Jacobson

Weighing empirical and hypothetical evidence for assessing potential invasive species range limits: a review of the case of Burmese pythons in the USA, Richard Engeman, Michael L. Avery, and Elliot Jacobson

Benefits to Rare Plants and Highway Safety from Annual Population Reductions of a “Native Invader,” White-Tailed Deer, in a Chicago-Area Woodland, Richard Engeman, Travis Guerrant, Glen Dunn, Scott F. Beckerman, and Chris Anchor

Impacts from Control Operations on a Recreationally Hunted Feral Swine Population at a Large Military Installation in Florida, Richard Engeman, Troy Hershberger, Steve Orzell, Rodney Felix, Gary Killian, John Woolard, Jon Cornman, David Romano, Chet Huddleston, Pat Zimmerman, Chris Barre, Eric Tillman, and Michael Avery

Anthropogenic Conditioning of Gray Jays to a Nutritious, Seasonal Aquatic Food Source, R. M. Engeman and C. J. Wiloth

Wildlife Damage Management: Changes over the Last 40 Years and a Look at the Future, Kathleen A. Fagerstone

Fine-scale, spatial and temporal assessment methods for feral swine disturbances to sensitive plant communities in south-central Florida, Rodney K. Felix Jr., Steve L. Orzell, Eric A. Tillman, Richard M. Engeman, and Michael L. Avery

Influenza A Subtype H3 Viruses in Feral Swine, United States, 2011–2012, Zhixin Feng, John A. Baroch, Li-Ping Long, Yifei Xu, Frederick L. Cunningham, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, Brandon S. Schmidt, Andrew S. Bowman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

Optimization of Formulations for the Lethal Control of Feral Pigs, Justin A. Foster, James C. Martin, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Greg E. Phillips, and John D. Eisemann

Does Habitat Heterogeneity in a Multi-Use Landscape Influence Survival Rates and Density of a Native Mesocarnivore?, Eric M. Gese and Craig M. Thompson

A Recent Epizootic of Skunk Rabies and Associated Spillover in Northern Colorado, USA, Amy Gilbert, Dennis Kohler, Tara Rigg, Justin Fischer, Terry Spraker, Karen Fox, and Kurt VerCauteren

Determination of residue levels of alphachloralose in duck tissues, David A. Goldade, Randal S. Stahl, and John J. Johnston

Crossing the Interspecies Barrier: Opening the Door to Zoonotic Pathogens, Christian Gortazar, Leslie A. Reperant, Thijs Kuiken, Jose de la Fuente, Mariana Boadella, Beatriz Martinez-Lopez, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Agusitn Estrada-Pena, Christian Drosten, Graham Medley, Richard Ostfeld, Townsend Peterson, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Christian Menge, Marc Artois, Constance Schultsz, Richard Delahay, Jordi Sierra-Cobo, Robert Poulin, Frederic Keck, Alonso A. Aguirre, Heikki Henttonen, Andrew P. Dobson, Susan Kutz, Juan Lubroth, and Atle Mysterud

The Wake Island Rodent Eradication: Part Success, Part Failure, but Wholly Instructive, Richard Griffiths, Alex Wegmann, Chad Hanson, Brad Keitt, Gregg Howald, Derek Brown, Bernie Tershy, William Pitt, Matthew Moran, Kristen Rex, Susan White, Beth Flint, and Nick Torr