National Wildlife Research Center

NWRC Website

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The U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is the federal institution devoted to resolving problems caused by the interaction of wild animals and society. The Center applies scientific expertise to the development of practical methods to resolve these problems and to maintain the quality of the environments shared with wildlife.

This site contains publications of the NWRC or its staff. Material prepared by employees of the US Government in the course of their official duties cannot be copyrighted.

"The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management does not necessarily concur, endorse or recommend all of the opinions and/or images contained within these documents. Should you use or rely on the information, techniques and materials provided by the ICWDM, you are responsible for determinations of efficacy and legality of such use and/or reliance, and you will at all times defend, indemnify and hold harmless the Board of Regents of the University of Nebraska, Utah State University, Cornell University, and Clemson University, their officers, employees and agents against all claims, demands, costs, and expenses arise from your use of or reliance on any information provided in the ICWDM and the Digital Commons. The ICWDM includes these sources for purposes of historical record, completeness and research."

2015

The effect of social context and social scale on the perception of relationships in monk parakeets, Elizabeth A. Hobson, Darlene J. John, Tiffany L. Mcintosh, Michael L. Avery, and Timonthy F. Wright

Invaded Invaders: Infection of Invasive Brown Treesnakes on Guam by an Exotic Larval Cestode with a Life Cycle Comprised of Non-Native Hosts, Elden T. Holldorf, Shane R. Siers, Jonathan Q. Richmond, Page E. Klug, and Robert N. Reed

Molecular assessment of translocation and management of an endangered subspecies of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Matthew W. Hopken, Tod M. Lum, Paul M. Meyers, and Antoinette J. Piaggio

Increased diphacinone and chlorophacinone metabolism in previously exposed wild caught voles, Microtus californicus, Katherine E. Horak, Steven F. Volker, and Christopher M. Campton

Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Rocio Crespo, Paul Kohrs, Paul DeBruyn, Kristin G. Mansfield, Timothy Baszler, Lyndon Badcoe, Barbara Bodenstein, Valerie Shearn-Bochsler, Mary Lea Killian, Janice C. Pedersen, Nichole Hines, Thomas Gidlewski, Thomas Deliberto, and Jonathan M. Sleeman

Human Disturbance and the Physiological Response of Elk in Eastern Washington, D. S. Jachowski, S. McCorquodale, Brian E. Washburn, and Joshua J. Millspaugh

Shifting perceptions of risk and reward: Dynamic selection for human development by black bears in the western United States, H. E. Johnson, S. W. Breck, S. Baruch-Mordo, D. L. Lewis, C. W. Lackey, K. R. Wilson, J. Broderick, J. S. Mao, and J. P. Beckmann

Multi-Trophic Level Feeding Interactions Among Two Native and Two Non-Native Species: Implications for the Endangered Reticulated Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma bishopi), Kelly C. Jones, Brandon K. Rincon, Thomas A. Gorman, Carola A. Haas, and Richard M. Engeman

POTENTIAL FOR GREAT EGRETS (ARDEA ALBA) TO TRANSMIT A VIRULENT STRAIN OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA AMONG CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) CULTURE PONDS, Madison M. Jubirt, Larry A. Hanson, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Lorelei Ford, Scott Lemmons, Paul Fioranelli, and Fred L. Cunningham

Best practice guidelines for rat eradication on tropical islands, B. Keitt, R. Griffiths, S. Boudjelas, K. Broome, S. Cranwell, J. Millett, W. Pitt, and A. Samaniego-Herrera

Subtype-specific influenza A virus antibodies in Canada geese (Branta canadensis), Whitney M. Kistler, David E. Stallknecht, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Kyle Van Why, and Michael J. Yabsley

Influenza A Virus H5–specific Antibodies in Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) in the USA, Whitney M. Kistler, David E. Stallknecht, Camille Lebarbenchon, Kerri Pedersen, David R. Marks, Randy Mickley, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Michael J. Yabsley

Chemical repellents appear non-useful for eliciting exit of brown tree snakes from cargo, Fred Kraus, Randal Stahl, and William Pitt

Thermal fumigation provides a simple and effective solution for sanitizing cargo from invasive snakes, Fred Kraus, Randal Stahl, and William Pitt

Food Habits of Adult Male White-Tailed Deer Determined by Camera Collars, Michael J. Lavelle, Chad R. Blass, Justin W. Fischer, Scott E. Hygnstrom, David G. Hewitt, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Deer response to exclusion from stored cattle feed in Michigan, USA, Michael J. Lavelle, Henry Campa III, Kyle LeDoux, Patrick J. Ryan, Justin W. Fischer, Kim M. Pepin, Chad R. Blass, Michael P. Glow, Scott E. Hygnstrom, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Effects of barred owl (Strix varia) range expansion on Haemoproteus parasite assemblage dynamics and transmission in barred and northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), Krista E. Lewicki, Kathryn P. Huyvaert, Antoinette J. Piaggio, Lowell V. Diller, and Alan B. Franklin

Animal reactions to oncoming vehicles: a conceptual review, Steven L. Lima, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Limitations of population suppression for protecting crops from bird depredation: A review, George M. Linz, Enrique H. Bucher, Sonia B. Canavelli, Ethel Rodriguez, and Michael L. Avery

Sunflower Bird Pests, George M. Linz and James J. Hanzel

Evaluating the Reliability of Field Identification and Morphometric Classifications for Carnivore Scats Confirmed with Genetic Analysis, Robert C. Lonsinger, Eric M. Gese, and Lisette P. Waits

Network analysis of host–virus communities in bats and rodents reveals determinants of cross-species transmission, Angela D. Luis, Thomas J. O'Shea, David T.S. Hayman, James L.N. Wood, Andrew A. Cunningham, Amy T. Gilbert, James N. Mills, and Colleen T. Webb

Modeling and Mapping the Probability of Occurrence of Invasive Wild Pigs across the Contiguous United States, Meredith L. McClure, Christopher L. Burdett, Matthew L. Farnsworth, Mark W. Lutman, David M. Theobald, Philip D. Riggs, Daniel A. Grear, and Ryan S. Miller

WEST NILE VIRUS ANTIBODY DECAY RATE IN FREE-RANGING BIRDS, Eileen M. McKee, Edward D. Walker, Tavis K. Anderson, Uriel D. Kitron, Jeffrey D. Brawn, Bethany L. Krebs, Christina Newman, Marilyn O. Ruiz, Rebecca S. Levine, Mary E. Carrington, Robert G. McLean, Tony L. Goldberg, and Gabriel L. Hamer

Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies and exposure to bats in two rural communities in Guatemala, David Moran, Patricia Juliao, Danilo Alvarez, Kim A. Lindblade, James A. Ellison, Amy T. Gilbert, Brett Petersen, Charles Rupprecht, and Sergio Recuenco

Predator-induced renesting and reproductive effort in indigo buntings: more work for less pay?, Dana L. Morris, John Faaborg, Brian E. Washburn, and Joshua J. Millspaugh

Novel Paramyxoviruses in Bats from Sub-Saharan Africa, 2007–2012, Marinda Mortlock, Ivan V. Kuzmin, Jacqueline Weyer, Amy T. Gilbert, Bernard Agwanda, Charles E. Rupprecht, Louis H. Nel, Teresa Kearney, Jean M. Malekani, and Wanda Markotter

Demographic and Spatiotemporal Patterns of Avian Influenza Infection at the Continental Scale, and in Relation to Annual Life Cycle of a Migratory Host, Rodolfo Nallar, Zsuzsanna Papp, Tasha Epp, Frederick A. Leighton, Seth R. Swafford, Thomas J. DeLiberto, Robert J. Dusek, Hon S. Ip, Jeffrey Hall, Yohannes Berhane, Samantha E.J. Gibbs, and Catherine Soos

CWD prions remain infectious after passage through the digestive system of coyotes (Canis latrans), Tracy A. Nichols, Justin W. Fischer, Terry R. Spraker, Qingzhong Kong, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Evaluation of 9,10 anthraquinone application to pre-seed set sunflowers for repelling blackbirds, Megan D. Niner, George M. Linz, and Mark E. Clark

Establishing a definition of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health: A guide to research and management activities, Kelly A. Park, Colleen Duncan, Pauline Noi, Christian Sonne, Kristin Laidre, Martyn Obbard, Oystein Wiig, Jon Aars, Eric Regehr, Lori L. Gustafson, and Todd Atwood

Widespread detection of antibodies to Leptospira in feral swine in the United States, K. Pedersen, K. L. Pabilonia, T. D. Anderson, S. N. Bevins, C. R. Hicks, J. M. Kloft, and Thomas J. Deliberto

Contact heterogeneities in feral swine: implications for disease management and future research, Kim M. Pepin, Amy J. Davis, James C. Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Tyler Campbell, Susan M. Cooper, Wesson D. Gaston, Steve Hartley, John C. Kilgo, Samantha M. Wisely, A. Christy Wyckoff, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Utility of mosquito surveillance data for spatial prioritization of vector control against dengue viruses in three Brazilian cities, Kim M. Pepin, Clint B. Leach, Cecilia Marques-Toledo, Karla H. Laass, Kelly S. Paixao, Angela D. Luis, David T.S. Hayman, Nels D. Johnson, Michael G. Buhnerkempe, Scott Carver, Daniel A. Grear, Kimberly Tsao, Alvaro E. Eiras, and Colleen T. Webb

Evaluating landowner-based beaver relocation as a tool to restore salmon habitat, V. M. Petro, J. D. Taylor, and D. M. Sanchez

Non-target species mortality and the measurement of brodifacoum rodenticide residues after a rat (Rattus rattus) eradication on Palmyra Atoll, tropical Pacific, William C. Pitt, Are R. Berentsen, Aaron B. Shiels, Steven F. Volker, John D. Eisemann, Alexander S. Wegmann, and Gregg R. Howald

Effect of travel distance, home range, and bait on the management of small Indian mongooses, Herpestes auropunctatus, William C. Pitt, Robert T. Sugihara, and Are R. Berentsen

Anticoagulant Rodenticide Exposure and Toxicosis in Coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Denver Metropolitan Area, Sharon A. Poessel, Stewart W. Breck, Karen A. Fox, and Eric M. Gese

Improving the odds: Assessing bait availability before rodent eradications to aid in selecting bait application rates, Madeleine Pott, Alexander S. Wegmann, Richard Griffiths, Araceli Samaniego-Herrera, Richard J. Cuthbert, M. de L. Brooke, William C. Pitt, Are R. Berentsen, Nick D. Holmes, Gregg R. Howald, Karina Ramos-Rendon, and James C. Russell

Serologic Survey of Snowshoe Hares (Lepus americanus) in the Greater Yellowstone Area for Brucellosis, Tularemia, and Snowshoe Hare Virus, Jack Rhyan, Dan Tyers, Jeremy Zimmer, Kristen Lewandowski, Steve Hennager, John Young, Ryan Pappert, Amanda Panella, and Olga Kosoy

Evaluation of Resident Canada Goose Movements to Reduce the Risk of Goose-Aircraft Collisions at Suburban Airports, M. Elizabeth Rutledge, Christopher E. Moorman, Brian E. Washburn, and Christopher S. Deperno

Evaluation of Resident Canada Goose Movements to Reduce the Risk of Goose- Aircraft Collisions at Suburban Airports, M. Elizabeth Rutledge, Christopher E. Moorman, Brian E. Washburn, and Christopher S. Deperno

AN INDIVIDUAL-BASED MODEL FOR FERAL HOGS IN GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK, Rene A. Salinas, William H. Stiver, Joseph L. Corn, Suzanne Lenhart, Charles Collins, Marguerite Madden, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Brandon B. Schmit, Ellen Kasari, Agricola Odoi, Graham Hickling, and Hamish McCallum

Assessing Chemical Control of Earthworms at Airports, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Glen E. Bernhardt, and Daniel A. Potter

The effects of radar on avian behavior: Implications for wildlife management at airports, Eleanor Sheridan, Jacquelyn Randolet, Travis Lee DeVault, Thomas Walter Seamans, Bradley Fields Blackwell, and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

Barriers to seed and seedling survival of once-common Hawaiian palms: the role of invasive rats and ungulates, Aaron B. Shiels and Donald R. Drake

Tropical Forest Responses to Large-Scale Experiments, Aaron B. Shiels and Grizelle Gonzalez

Cascading Effects of Canopy Opening and Debris Deposition from a Large-Scale Hurricane Experiment in a Tropical Rain Forest, Aaron B. Shiels, Grizelle Gonzalez, D. Jean Lodge, Michael R. Willig, and Jess K. Zimmerman

Modeling the economic impacts of double-crested cormorant damage to a recreational fishery, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Travis L. DeVault, and Steven S. Shwiff

To cross or not to cross: modeling wildlife road crossings as a binary response variable with contextual predictors, Shane R. Siers, Robert N. Reed, and Julie A. Savidge

EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC FISHMEAL POLYMER BAITS FOR THE CONTROL OF BAYLISASCARIS PROCYONIS IN FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR), Timothy J. Smyser, Shylo R. Johnson, Melissa D. Stallard, Ashley K. McGrew, L. Kristen Page, Nikki Crider, Lora R. Ballweber, Robert K. Swihart, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease, Terry R. Spraker, Thomas Gidlewski, Jenny G. Powers, Tracy Nichols, Aru Balachandran, Bruce Cummings, Margaret A. Wild, Kurt VerCauteren, and Katherine I. O’Rourke

Fecal Volatile Organic Ccompound Profiles from White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as Indicators of Mycobacterium bovis Exposure or Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccination, Randal S. Stahl, Christine K. Ellis, Pauline Nol, W. Ray Waters, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Review of the 2012 Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in Domestic Ruminants in the United States, G Stevens, B McCluskey, A King, E O'Hearn, and G Mayr

Dynamics of virus shedding and antibody responses in influenza A virus-infected feral swine, Hailiang Sun, Fred L. Cunningham, Jillian Harris, Yifei Xu, Li-Ping Long, Katie Hanson-Dorr, John A. Baroch, Paul Fioranelli, Mark W. Lutman, Tao Li, Kerri Pedersen, Brandon S. Schmit, Jim Cooley, Xiaoxu Lin, Richard G. Jarman, Thomas J. DeLiberto, and Xiu-Feng Wan

FLIGHT FEATHER MOLT IN YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRDS (XANTHOCEPHALUS XANTHOCEPHALUS) IN NORTH DAKOTA, Daniel J. Twedt and George M. Linz

Threats to humans and beasts, Kurt C. VerCauteren

COLLISIONS BETWEEN EAGLES AND AIRCRAFT: AN INCREASING PROBLEM IN THE AIRPORT ENVIRONMENT, Brian E. Washburn, Michael J. Begier, and Sandra E. Wright

Anthraquinone-based repellent for horned larks, great-tailed grackles, American crows and the protection of California's specialty crops, Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Anna M. Mangan, Susan E. Pettit, Jeremy W. Ellis, and James C. Carlson

Efficacy of potential chemical control compounds for removing invasive American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), Gary W. Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, and Rachael S. Moulton

Is anthropogenic cougar mortality compensated by changes in natural mortality in Utah? Insight from long-term studies, Michael L. Wolfe, David N. Koons, David C. Stoner, Patricia Terletzky, Eric M. Gese, David M. Choate, and Lise M. Aubry

Is anthropogenic cougar mortality compensated by changes in natural mortality in Utah? Insight from long-term studies, Michael L. Wolfe, David N. Koons, David C. Stoner, Patricia Terletzky, Eric M. Gese, David M. Choate, and Lise M. Aubry

Prion Amplification and Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling Refine Detection of Prion Infection, A. Christy Wyckoff, Nathan Galloway, Crystal Meyerett-Reid, Jenny Powers, Terry Spraker, Ryan J. Monello, Bruce Pulford, Margaret Wild, Michael Antolin, Kurt VerCauteren, and Mark Zabel

Human–Carnivore Interactions: Lessons Learned from Communities in the American West, Julie K. Young, Zhao Ma, Ann Laudati, and Joel Berger

2014

Impacts of Invasive Species on Ecosystem Energy Flow on the Big Island of Hawai'i: Excuse Me, But Are You Going to Eat That Cane Toad?, Erin F. Abernethy, Kelsey L. Turner, James C. Beasley, Travis L. DeVault, William C. Pitt, and Olin E. Rhodes

Predicted Wildlife Disease-Related Climate Change Impacts of Specific Concern to USDA APHIS Wildlife Services, Timothy P. Algeo, Richard B. Chipman, Dennis Slate, Jerome E. Freier, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Sympatric prey responses to lethal top-predator control: predator manipulation experiments, Benjamin L. Allen, Lee R. Allen, Richard M. Engeman, and Luke K.-P. Leung

Does lethal control of top-predators release mesopredators? A re-evaluation of three Australian case studies, Benjamin L. Allen, Geoff Lundie-Jenkins, Neil D. Burrows, Richard M. Engeman, Peter J.S. Fleming, and Luke K.-P. Leung

The Short-Term Effects of a Routine Poisoning Campaign on the Movements and Detectability of a Social Top-Predator., B l. Allen, R. M. Engeman, and L. K-P. Leung

Economic Analysis of Indemnity Payments for Wolf Depredation on Cattle in a Wolf Reintroduction Area, Aaron Anderson, Karen Gebhardt, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, David L. Bergman, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Forecasting the spread of raccoon rabies using a purpose-specific group decision-making process., Aaron M. Anderson, Stephanie A. Shwiff, Richard B. Chipman, Todd C. Atwood, Tyler Cozzens, Frank Fillo, Robert Hale, Brody Hatch, Joanne Maki, Olin E. Rhodes, Erin E. Rees, Charles E. Rupprecht, Rowland Tinline, Kurt C. Vercauteren, and Dennis Slate

Economic Impact of the Potential Spread of Vampire Bats into South Texas, Aaron Anderson, Steven S. Shwiff, and Stephanie A. Shwiff

Invasive Myna Control in American Samoa, Michael L. Avery and John D. Eisemann

Detection and Removal of Invasive Burmese Pythons: Methods Development Update, Michael L. Avery, John S. Humphrey, Kandy L. Keacher, and W. Eddie Bruce

Invasive black spiny-tailed iguanas (Ctenosaura similis) on Gasparilla Island, Florida, USA, Michael L. Avery, Eric A. Tillman, Conny Spurfeld, Richard M. Engeman, Kelin P. Maciejewski, Jessica D. Brown, and Emily A. Fetzer

Effectiveness of Rodenticides for Managing Invasive Roof Rats and Native Deer Mice in Orchards, Roger A. Baldwin, Niamh Quinn, David H. Davis, and Richard M. Engeman

Exposure of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States to selected pathogens, John A. Baroch, Carl A. Gagnon, Sonia Lacouture, and Marcelo Gottschalk

Stochasticity in Natural Forage Production Affects Use of Urban Areas by Black Bears: Implications to Management of Human-Bear Conflicts, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Kenneth R. Wilson, David L. Lewis, John Broderick, Julie S. Mao, and Stewart W. Breck

Preference among 7 bait flavors delivered to domestic dogs in Arizona: Implications for oral rabies vaccination on the Navajo Nation, Are R. Berentsen, Scott C. Bender, David Bergman, Krista Hausig, and Kurt Vercauteren

Evaluation of 6 ONRAB Ultralite bait flavor matrices delivered to coyotes (Canis latrans): Implications for oral rabies vaccination, Are R. Berentsen, Stacey P. Brummer, Julie K. Young, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Bait matrix flavor preference by mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) in Puerto Rico: Implications for Oral Rabies Vaccination, Are R. Berentsen, Shylo R. Johnson, and Kurt C. VerCauteren

Characteristics of White-Tailed Deer Visits to Cattle Farms: Implications for Disease Transmission at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface, Are R. Berentsen, Ryan S. Miller, Jennifer L. Malmberg, and Mike R. Dunbar

Longevity of Rodenticide Bait Pellets in a Tropical Environment Following a Rat Eradication Program, Are R. Berentsen, William C. Pitt, John D. Eisemann, and Richard M. Engeman

Large-Scale Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds throughout the United States, Sarah N. Bevins, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, John A. Baroch, Brandon S. Schmit, Dennis Kohler, Thomas Gidlewski, Dale L. Nolte, Seth R. Swafford, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

Consequences Associated with the Recent Range Expansion of Nonnative Feral Swine, Sarah N. Bevins, Kerri Pedersen, Mark W. Lutman, Thomas Gidlewski, and Thomas J. DeLiberto

OSPREYS (PANDION HALIAETUS) IN THE 21ST CENTURY: POPULATIONS, MIGRATION, MANAGEMENT, AND RESEARCH PRIORITIES, Richard O. Bierregaard, Alan F. Poole, and Brian E. Washburn

Integrating mammalian hazards with management at U.S. civil airports: a case study., Kristin M. Biondi, Jerrold L. Belant, James A. Martin, Travis L. DeVault, and Guiming Wang

White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger, Bradley F. Blackwelll, Thomas W. Seamans, and Travis L. DeVault

Report to the Chicago Park District on Conflicts with Ring-billed Gulls and the 2014 Integrated Ring-billed Gull Damage Management Project, M.L. Bloomquist, J.W. Hartmann, T.G. Guerrant, S.F. Beckerman, and R. M. Engeman

The Influence of Study Species Selection on Estimates of Pesticide Exposure in Free-Ranging Birds, Shannon Borges, Nimish B. Vyas, and Mary Christman

New species records and changes in abundance of waterfowl in northwest Greenland, K. K. Burnham, D. R. Sinnett, J. A. Johnson, J. L. Burnham, and J. A. Baroch

Calving location selection patterns of saiga antelope in Mongolia, B. Buuveibaatar, T. K. Fuller, J. K. Young, and J. Berger

Population Dynamics of Double-Crested Cormorants in Two Interior Breeding Areas, Jennifer E. Chastant, D. Tommy King, D.V. Chip Weseloh, and David J. Moore

Disease Risks ·Posed by Wild Birds Associated with Agricultural Landscapes, Larry Clark

The Chemical Senses in Birds, Larry Clark, Julie Hagelin, and Scott Werner

Risk Factors Associated with Enteric Septicemia of Catfish on Mississippi Commercial Catfish Farms, Fred L. Cunningham, S. W. Jack, David Hardin, and Robert W. Wills

Incorporating Cold-Air Pooling into Downscaled Climate Models Increases Potential Refugia for Snow-Dependent Species within the Sierra Nevada Ecoregion, CA, Jennifer A. Curtis, Lorraine E. Flint, Alan L. Flint, Jessica D. Lundquist, Brian Hudgens, Erin E. Boydston, and Julie K. Young

EXPLORING THE ROLE OF OSPREYS IN EDUCATION, Rebecca Cushing and Brian E. Washburn

Finding a Fox: An Evaluation of Survey Methods to Estimate Abundance of a Small Desert Carnivore, Steven J. Dempsey, Eric M. Gese, and Bryan M. Kluever

Review of Wildlife Damage Management: Prevention, Problem Solving and Conflict Resolution, Travis L. DeVault