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The mammalian fauna of Nicaragua includes seven species in the order Xenarthra, including the brown-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) in the family Bradypodidae, Hoffmann's two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni) in the family Megalonychidae, the northern naked-tailed armadillo (Cabassous centralis) and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the family Dasypodidae, and the silky anteater (Cyclopes didactylus) and northern tamandua (Tamandua mexicana) in the family Myrmecophagidae. Additionally, the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) in the family Myrmecophagidae is (or was) certainly part of the fauna of Nicaragua but has yet to be documented there. Based on 133 xenarthran specimens available in museums and our observations, we herein review and provide new information on distributions, systematics, morphometrics, and natural history of these species in Nicaragua. Replacement of the milk dentition in Dasypus novemcinctus is described and illustrated, documenting the most common adult dental formula of i 0/0, c 0/ 0, p 7/7, m 1/1 = 32.