I. Introduction

II. The Purpose and Nature of the Copyright Clause

III. Two Centuries of Rightsholders' Advances

IV. The Exclusive Right of Authors at the End of the 20th Century ... A. Congress’s Discretion ... B. The Fair Use Doctrine ... C. Temporary Copyright and the Public Domain

V. The Future of Digital Copying ... A. Digital Media and the Copyright Industries ... B. Recent Controversies in Digital Copying ... 1. Mymp3.com ... 2. Napster and Gnutella ... 3. DeCSS ... C. Technological Negation of Fair Use Copying

VI. Millennial Changes in Copyright Law

VII. The Limits of Congress's Power Under the Copyright Clause ... A. "To Promote" as an Interpretive Guide ... B. "Exclusive Right" Versus Noncompeting Uses ... C. "For Limited Times" Versus Creeping Perpetuity

VIII. Conclusion