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Two new Rhabdias species are described from the lungs of the cane toad Bufo marinus (L.) from Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Rhabdias alabialis n. sp. differs from other known species of the genus by the remarkable morphology of its head end, i.e., the absence of lips or pseudolabia, the slitlike oral opening, and the triangular shape of the buccal capsule in apical view. Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala n. sp. is identified as a form previously known in Central and South America as Rhabdias sphaerocephala Goodey, 1924, a species initially described from toads in Europe. The new species is differentiated from R. sphaerocephala based on head-end morphology and sequences of nuclear rDNA.