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An intensive survey of ectoparasitic arthropods associated with small mammals in upland forests near Manaus, Brazil, provides information on the taxonomy and host distribution of laelapine mites in the Amazonian Region. We identified 5 genera and 21 species of these mites by comparisonw ith representativem useum specimens, the taxonomic literature, and, when possible, the original type specimens. These mites are host specific, with associations ranging from strict monoxeny (18 species) to oligoxeny (1 species) and pleioxeny (2 species). Marsupials were infested with species of Androlaelaps, echimyid rodents with Tur, and sigmodontine rodents with Gigantolaelaps, Laelaps, and Mysolaelaps. Androlaelaps bergalloi, a new species of Laelapinae, is described from the pelage of the marsupial Monodelphis brevicaudata.