Date of this Version
Journal of Parasitology (2005) 91(6): 1,413-1,429. Erratum: Journal of Parasitology (2007) 93(2): 444.
Individual specimens of Anisakis, Pseudoterranova, and Contracaecum collected from marine mammals inhabiting northern Pacific waters were used for comparative diagnostic and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Forty-eight new sequences were obtained for this study of 14 Anisakis taxa, 8 Pseudoterranova taxa, 4 Contracaecum taxa, and 4 outgroup species. Partial 28S (LSU) and complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2) ribosomal DNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Sequences of ITS indicated that Pseudoterranova specimens from Zalophus californianus (California sea lion), Mirounga angustirostris (northern elephant seal), Phoca vitulina (harbor seal), Enhydra lutris (sea otter), and Eumetopias jubatus (Steller’s sea lion) exactly matched P. decipiens s. str., extending the host and geographic range of this species. Anisakis from northern Pacific marine mammals were most closely related to members of the A. simplex species complex. Comparison of Anisakis ITS sequences diagnosed the presence of A. simplex C in 2 M. angustirostris hosts, which is a new host record. Anisakis specimens from Phocoena phocoena (harbor porpoise), Lissodelphis borealis (Pacific rightwhale porpoise), and E. jubatus included 3 ITS sequences that did not match any known species. Contracaecum adults obtained from Z. californianus were most closely related to C. ogmorhini s.l. and C. rudolphii, but ITS sequences of these Contracaecum specimens did not match C. ogmorhini s. str. or C. margolisi. These novel Anisakis and Contracaecum ITS sequences may represent previously uncharacterized species. Phylogenetic analysis of LSU sequences revealed strong support for the monophyly of Anisakinae, Contracaecum plus Phocascaris, Pseudoterranova, and Anisakis. Phylogenetic trees inferred from ITS sequences yielded robustly supported relationships for Pseudoterranova and Anisakis species that are primarily consistent with previously published phenograms based on multilocus electrophoretic data.