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Strain induced alteration of the gadolinium surface state The electronic structure of strained and unstrained Gd(0001) has been studied with photoemission, inverse photoemission, and spin-polarized photoemission. A shift of the occupied majority and unoccupied minority surface states has been observed as a result of the strain, consistent with the phase accumulation model. There is a strain induced shift of the minority spin surface state across the Fermi level. ©1998 American Institute of Physics.