Anthony F. Starace PublicationsCopyright (c) 2015 University of Nebraska - Lincoln All rights reserved.
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace
Recent documents in Anthony F. Starace Publicationsen-usWed, 12 Aug 2015 01:45:49 PDT3600Scaling laws for high-order-harmonic generation with midinfrared laser pulses
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/213
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/213Mon, 10 Aug 2015 10:04:45 PDT
We derive an analytic expression for thewavelength scaling of the high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) yield induced by midinfrared driving laser fields. It is based on a quasiclassical description of the returning electron wave packet, which is shown to be largely independent of atomic properties. The accuracy of this analytic expression is confirmed by comparison with results of numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schr¨odinger equation for wavelengths in the range of 1.4 μm ≤ λ ≤ 4 μm. We verify the wavelength scaling of the HHG yield found numerically for midinfrared laser fields in a recent paper by Le et al. [
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M. V. Frolov et al.Photodetachment of a model molecular system by an elliptically polarized field
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/212
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/212Sun, 26 Jul 2015 17:08:25 PDT
The differential cross section for one-photon molecular detachment by an elliptically polarized field is analyzed for a one-electron molecular model comprised of an electron in the field of two (generally nonequivalent) attractive zero-range potentials (ZRPs) separated by the distance R. A phenomenological parametrization of the photodetachment cross section for a fixed-in-space molecular system in terms of two scalar dynamical parameters is presented and circular dichroism effects are discussed. Analytic results for the dynamical molecular parameters within the ZRP molecular model are used to analyze interference phenomena (including two-center interference) and dichroic effects in the detached electron angular distributions and their dependence on the interatomic distance R and on the orientation of the molecular axis with respect to the polarization plane. Numerical ZRP results for angular distributions are presented for both symmetric and asymmetric molecules in an elliptically polarized field.
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M. V. Frolov et al.Nonlinear Dichroism in Back-to-Back Double Ionization of He by an Intense Elliptically Polarized Few-Cycle Extreme Ultraviolet Pulse
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/211
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/211Thu, 02 Apr 2015 13:54:35 PDT
Control of double ionization of He by means of the polarization and carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of an intense, few-cycle extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse is demonstrated numerically by solving the six-dimensional two-electron, time-dependent Schrödinger equation for He interacting with an elliptically polarized XUV pulse. Guided by perturbation theory (PT), we predict the existence of a nonlinear dichroic effect (∝ I^{3/2}) that is sensitive to the CEP, ellipticity, peak intensity I, and temporal duration of the pulse. This dichroic effect (i.e., the difference of the two-electron angular distributions for opposite helicities of the ionizing XUV pulse) originates from interference of first- and second-order PT amplitudes, allowing one to probe and control S- and D-wave channels of the two-electron continuum.We show that the back-to-back in-plane geometry with unequal energy sharing is an ideal one for observing this dichroic effect that occurs only for an elliptically polarized, few-cycle attosecond pulse.
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Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap et al.Rescattering effects in laser-assisted electron-atom
bremsstrahlung
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/210
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/210Tue, 17 Mar 2015 14:39:54 PDT
Rescattering effects in non-resonant spontaneous laser-assisted electron–atom bremsstrahlung (LABrS) are analyzed within the framework of time-dependent effective-range (TDER) theory. It is shown that high energy LABrS spectra exhibit rescattering plateau structures that are similar to those that are well-known in strong field laser-induced processes as well as those that have been predicted theoretically in laser-assisted collision processes. In the limit of a low-frequency laser field, an analytic description of LABrS is obtained from a rigorous quantum analysis of the exact TDER results for the LABrS amplitude. This amplitude is represented as a sum of factorized terms involving three factors, each having a clear physical meaning. The first two factors are the exact field-free amplitudes for electron–atom bremsstrahlung and for electron– atom scattering, and the third factor describes free electron motion in the laser field along a closed trajectory between the first (scattering) and second (rescattering) collision events. Finally, an extension of these TDER results to the case of LABrS in a Coulomb field is discussed.
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A. N. Zheltukhin et al.Comment on “Universality of Returning Electron Wave
Packet in High-Order Harmonic Generation with
Midinfrared Laser Pulses”
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/209
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/209Thu, 12 Feb 2015 08:58:48 PST
In conclusion, we have shown that when the same definition for the HHG yield is used [cf. Eq. (1)], the results of Ref. [1] give the same scaling law found earlier in Refs. [2–5] for wavelengths λ ≤ 2 μm. We note that this latter scaling law can be obtained analytically by using results of the model developed in Ref. [6] for the description of short-pulse HHG spectra. These analytic results as well as new numerical TDSE results for longer wavelengths, λ ≤ 4 μm, will be published elsewhere.
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M. V. Frolov et al.Imaging electronic motions in atoms by energy-resolved ultrafast electron diffraction
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/208
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/208Thu, 11 Sep 2014 21:55:34 PDT
We propose energy-resolved ultrafast electron diffraction as a means of directly imaging target electronic motions whose space, time, and energy information can be simultaneously retrieved from time-resolved diffraction measurements. The energy-resolved diffraction images are simulated for breathing, wiggling, and hybrid modes of electronic motion in the H atom. The simulations demonstrate the capabilities of ultrafast electron diffraction to image and distinguish different kinds of electronic motion. The theoretical analysis of the scattering process identifies the requirements for time- and state-resolved imaging of electronic motion and provides interpretations of the results.
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Hua-Chieh Shao et al.Potential-barrier effects in three-photon-ionization processes
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/207
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/207Mon, 04 Aug 2014 10:46:37 PDT
Resonance-like enhancements of generalized three-photon cross sections for extreme ultraviolet ionization of Ar, Kr, and Xe are demonstrated and analyzed within a single-active-electron, central-potential model. The resonant-like behavior is shown to originate fromthe potential barriers experienced by intermediate- and final-state photoelectron wave packets corresponding to absorption of one, two, or three photons. The resonance-like profiles in the generalized three-photon-ionization cross sections are shown to be similar to those found in the generalized two-photon-ionization cross sections [Phys. Rev. A 82, 053414 (2010)]. The complexity of Cooper minima in multiphoton-ionization processes is also discussed. Owing to the similar resonance-like profiles found in both two- and three-photon generalized cross sections, we expect such potential-barrier effects to be general features of multiphoton-ionization processes in most atoms with occupied p and d subshells.
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Liang-Wen Pi et al.Analytic model for the description of above-threshold ionization by an intense short laser pulse
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/206
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/206Tue, 08 Jul 2014 10:12:55 PDT
We present an analytic model for the description of above-threshold ionization (ATI) of an atom by an intense, linearly polarized short laser pulse. Our treatment is based upon a description of ATI by an infinitely long train of short laser pulses whereupon we take the limit that the time interval between pulses becomes infinite. In the quasiclassical approximation, we provide detailed quantum-mechanical derivations, within the time-dependent effective range (TDER) model, of the closed-form formulas for the differential probability P(p) of ATI by an intense, short laser pulse that were presented briefly by Frolov et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 213002 (2012)] and that were used to describe key features of the high-energy part of ATI spectra for H and He atoms in an intense, few-cycle laser pulse, using a phenomenological generalization of the physically transparent TDER results to the case of real atoms. Moreover, we extend these results here to the case of an electron bound initially in a p state; we also take into account multiple-return electron trajectories. The ATI amplitude in our approach is given by a coherent sum of partial amplitudes describing ionization by neighboring optical cycles near the peak of the intensity envelope of a short laser pulse. These results provide an analytical explanation of key features in short-pulse ATI spectra, such as the left-right asymmetry in the ionized electron angular distribution, the multiplateau structures, and both large-scale and fine-scale oscillation patterns resulting from quantum interferences of electron trajectories. Our results show that the shape of the ATI spectrum in the middle part of the ATI plateau is sensitive to the spatial symmetry of the initial bound state of the active electron. This sensitivity originates from the contributions of multiple-return electron trajectories. Our analytic results are shown to be in good agreement with results of numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for He and Ar atoms. Comparison of our results with those of quantitative rescattering theory is also discussed.
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M. V. Frolov et al.Resonant electron-atom bremsstrahlung in an intense laser field
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/205
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/205Sun, 09 Feb 2014 10:35:45 PST
We analyze a resonant mechanism for spontaneous laser-assisted electron bremsstrahlung (BrS) involving the resonant transition (via either laser-assisted electron-ion recombination or electron-atom attachment) into a laser-dressed intermediate quasibound state (corresponding, respectively, to either a field-free neutral atom or a negative-ion bound state) accompanied by ionization or detachment of this state by the laser field. This mechanism leads to resonant enhancement (by orders of magnitude) of the BrS spectral density for emitted photon energies corresponding to those for laser-assisted recombination or attachment. We present an accurate parametrization of the resonant BrS amplitude in terms of the amplitudes for nonresonant BrS, for recombination or attachment to the intermediate state, and for ionization or detachment of this state. The high accuracy of our general analytic parametrization of the resonant BrS cross section is shown by comparison with exact numerical results for laser-assisted BrS spectra obtained within time-dependent effective range theory. Numerical estimates of resonant BrS in electron scattering from a Coulomb potential are also presented.
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A. N. Zheltukhin et al.Imaging coherent electronic motion in atoms by ultrafast electron diffraction
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/204
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/204Sun, 29 Dec 2013 11:18:37 PST
Ultrafast electron diffraction from time-varying coherent electronic states of the H atom is analyzed theoretically. This theoretical analysis identifies the conditions necessary to obtain time-resolved measurements. Electron diffraction from coherent electronic states exhibiting breathing and wiggling modes of electronic motion are simulated numerically in order to demonstrate the capability of attosecond electron pulses to image electron dynamics. The scattering patterns and their temporal behaviors are shown to differentiate the two kinds of target electronic motion. Moreover, our simulations show that inelastic processes contribute significantly to the diffraction patterns. Thus, although the diffraction patterns clearly distinguish different modes of target electronic motion, they cannot be easily related to the time-dependent target charge density.
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Hua-Chieh Shao et al.Harmonic generation spectroscopy with a
two-colour laser field having orthogonal
linear polarizations
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/203
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/203Fri, 22 Nov 2013 13:03:05 PST
The interpretation of many high-order harmonic generation (HHG) experiments is based on the assumption that the HHG yield of an atom can be factorized into (i) a laser-dependent ‘electron wave packet’ with rather simple properties, including a nearly universal shape, and (ii) an atomic photorecombination cross section. We show that this factorization is restricted to linearly polarized laser fields and fails in two-colour laser fields with orthogonal polarizations. At the same time, we show how two-colour HHG spectroscopy using orthogonally polarized intense fundamental and relatively weak second harmonic fields makes a complete experiment possible that enables the retrieval of the angle-resolved photorecombination cross sections for atomic p states.
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T. S. Sarantseva et al.Resonant enhancement of the harmonic-generation spectrum of beryllium
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/202
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/202Mon, 18 Nov 2013 06:27:33 PST
The high-order harmonic-generation (HHG) spectrum of Be is investigated in the multiphoton regime by solving the full-dimensional, two-active-electron, time-dependent Schr¨odinger equation in an intense (≈10^{13} W/cm^{2}), 30-cycle laser field. As the laser frequency ω_{L}varies from 1.7 to 1.8 eV (which is in the tunable range of a Ti:sapphire laser), the seventh harmonic becomes resonant sequentially with the transition between the ground state and two doubly excited autoionizing states, 2p4s(^{1}P) (at ω_{L}= 1.734 eV) and 2p5s(^{1}P) (at ω_{L}= 1.785 eV), while the third harmonic becomes resonant with the 2s2p(^{1}P) singly excited state (at ω_{L}= 1.766 eV). At each of these resonant frequencies, the HHG power spectrum is found to increase by an order of magnitude over a range of harmonics that form a plateau, extending from the resonant harmonic up to a cutoff at the 25th harmonic. In contrast to the well-known rescattering plateau cutoff law appropriate in the tunneling regime (which predicts a cutoff at the fifth or seventh harmonic), the multiphoton regime plateau we find for Be originates from atomic resonance effects. Off resonance, the Be HHG spectrum decreases monotonically with harmonic order. By taking the ratio of the integrated harmonic power of the seventh harmonic to that of the fifth harmonic, one can isolate the resonant effects of the two doubly excited states in the HHG spectrum from those of singly excited resonance states. These ratios exhibit resonance profiles for driving laser-pulse durations much longer than the lifetimes of these autoionizing states. The energy widths of these resonance features are comparable to the widths of the laser pulse and are much smaller than the autoionizing state widths. These results demonstrate an important role for electron correlations in enhancing harmonic-generation rates in the multiphoton regime.
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Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap et al.Carrier-envelope-phase-induced asymmetries in double ionization of helium by an intense few-cycle XUV pulse
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/201
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/201Wed, 13 Nov 2013 14:57:24 PST
The carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) dependence of electron angular distributions in double ionization of He by an arbitrarily polarized, few-cycle, intense XUV pulse is formulated using perturbation theory (PT) in the pulse amplitude. Owing to the broad pulse bandwidth, interference of first- and second-order PT amplitudes produces asymmetric angular distributions sensitive to the CEP. The PT parametrization is shown to be valid by comparing with results of solutions of the full-dimensional, two-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the case of linear polarization.
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Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap et al.Use of Attosecond Electron Pulses to Image Electronic
Motion in Atoms and Molecules
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/200
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/200Fri, 11 Oct 2013 08:45:46 PDT
We investigate theoretically the direct imaging of coherent electronic motion in atoms and molecules using attosecond electron pulses. The theories of time-resolved ultrafast electron diffraction and (e, 2e) momentum spectroscopy as well as the requisite conditions for carrying out time-resolved measurements to obtain timedependent images are discussed. Results of simulations showing images of the motions of coherent superposition states in both the hydrogen atom and the hydrogen molecular ion are shown, thus indicating the capability of ultrafast electron pulses to investigate time-dependent electron dynamics.
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Hua-Chieh Shao et al.Zero-range-potential model for strong-field molecular processes: Dynamic polarizability and photodetachment cross section
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/199
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/199Wed, 11 Sep 2013 08:53:48 PDT
We develop a general theoretical framework for the analytical description of the interaction of a model diatomic molecular system with an intense, arbitrarily polarized monochromatic laser field. The model molecule comprises an electron in the field of two zero-range potentials separated by the internuclear distance. This model has an exact analytical solution within the theoretical framework of the quasistationary quasienergy (Floquet) approach. In addition to the development of this general framework, we also present a detailed analysis of the weak-field limit, within which we obtain both the frequency-dependent polarizability and the angle-resolved photodetachment cross section for the model system. These fundamental properties are analyzed for both homonuclear and heteronuclear molecular systems in a linearly polarized laser field, for both ground and excited electronic states, and for arbitrary orientation of the molecular axis relative to the polarization vector of the laser field. The analytical expressions for the polarizability and angle-resolved photoelectron spectra exhibit characteristic double-slit interference patterns, allowing one to study their dependence on the parameters of the problem beyond the level of the Born approximation.
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S. V. Borzunov et al.Validity of Factorization of the High-Energy Photoelectron Yield in Above-Threshold Ionization of an Atom by a Short Laser Pulse
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/198
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/198Thu, 18 Jul 2013 13:21:21 PDT
An analytic description for the yield, P(p), of high-energy electrons ionized from an atom by a short (few-cycle) laser pulse is obtained quantum mechanically. Factorization of P(p) in terms of an electron wave packet and the cross section for elastic electron scattering (EES) is shown to occur only for an ultrashort pulse, while in general P(p) involves interference of EES amplitudes with laser-field-dependent momenta. The analytic predictions agree well with accurate numerical results.
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M. V. Frolov et al.Corrigendum to "Effect of elliptically polarised light on the angular distribution of photoelectrons"
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/197
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/197Thu, 18 Jul 2013 12:36:22 PDT
Correction to article published in J. Phys. B: Atom. Molec. Phys. 8 (1975), pp.1806-9

Re-states the definition of the polarisation p in equation (5), the association of E_{b} and E_{a} with E_{y} and E_{x}, and the interchange of subscripts y and x in Equation 11.

The substance and conclusions of the papers are unchanged.

We wish to thank Dr Keh-Ning Huang for pointing out this error.

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James A. R. Samson et al.Asymmetries in production of He<sup>+</sup>(<i>n</i> = 2) with an intense few-cycle attosecond pulse
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/196
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/196Thu, 18 Jul 2013 11:02:36 PDT
By solving the two-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we study carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) effects on ionization plus excitation of He to He^{+}(n = 2) states by a few-cycle attosecond pulse with a carrier frequency of 51 eV. For most CEPs the asymmetries in the photoelectron angular distributions with excitation of He^{+}(2s) or He^{+}(2p) have opposite signs and are two orders of magnitude larger than for ionization without excitation. These results indicate that attosecond pulse CEP effects may be significantly amplified in correlated two-electron ionization processes.
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Jean Marcel Ngoko Djiokap et al.Time-resolved ultrafast electron (<i>e</i>,2<i>e</i>) momentum spectroscopy
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/195
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/195Thu, 16 May 2013 07:14:07 PDT
The (e,2e) process is analyzed for the case of an ultrafast electron pulse incident upon a target prepared in a time-varying, coherent superposition of states. Conditions under which time-resolved target momentum densities can be obtained from experimental measurements are discussed. Results for coherent electronic motions in both the H atom and the H_{2}^{+} molecule are used to illustrate the capability of an ultrafast electron pulse to image time-dependent target electron dynamics.
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Hua-Chieh Shao et al.Control of atomic dynamics in laser-assisted electron-atom scattering through the driving-laser ellipticity
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/194
http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/physicsstarace/194Wed, 20 Mar 2013 14:33:04 PDT
Orders of magnitude increases of the cross sections are predicted for laser-assisted low-energy electron-atom scattering (accompanied by absorption of laser photons) as the laser ellipticity is increased. These ellipticity-controlled enhancements are manifestations of the field-free electron-atom scattering dynamics, such as the Ramsauer-Townsend effect in low-energy elastic electron-atom scattering. The strong sensitivity of laser-assisted scattering cross sections to this dynamics and the laser ellipticity is illustrated for e-Ne and e-Ar scattering in both midinfrared (λ = 3.5 μm) and CO_{2} (λ = 10.6 μm) laser fields of moderate intensities.
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A. V. Flegel et al.