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Five isolates of the bean rust fungus Uromyces appendiculatus were shown to be specifically virulent on bean genotypes of Andean origin. This specificity was demonstrated by the virulence of five pairs of isolates on a differential set of 30 Phaseolus vulgaris landraces. Each isolate pair was from a different country in the Americas and consisted of one Andean-specific isolate and one nonspecific isolate. Of the differential P. vulgaris landraces, 15 were of Middle American origin and 15 were of Andean origin. The Andean-specific rust isolates were highly virulent on Andean landraces but not on landraces of Middle American origin. Rust isolates with virulence to Middle American landraces were also generally virulent on Andean material; no truly Middle American-specific isolates were found. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of the rust isolates also distinguished the two groups. Four of the Andeanspecific rust isolates formed a distinct group compared to four of the nonspecific isolates. Two of the isolates, one from each of the two virulence groups, had intermediate RAPD banding patterns, suggesting that plasmagomy but not karyogamy occurred between isolates of the two groups.