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Both the common bacterial blight (CBB) pathogen (Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli) and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans, agent of fuscous blight, cause indistinguishable symptoms in common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris. Yield losses can exceed 40%. Lack of information about the specificity between X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains and major quantitative trait loci (QTL) or alleles conferring resistance makes the task of identifying genetic changes in host–pathogen interactions and the grouping of bacterial strains difficult. This, in turn, affects the choice of pathogen isolates used for germplasm screening and complicates breeding for CBB resistance. Common bean host genotypes carrying various sources and levels of resistance to CBB were screened with 69 X. campestris pv. phaseoli and 15 X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strains from around the world. Differential pathogenicity of the CBB pathogen was identified on the 12 selected bean genotypes. The X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strains showed greater pathogenicity than X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains having the same origin. African strains were most pathogenic. The largest variation in pathogenicity came from X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains that originated in Caribbean and South American countries. Pathogenic variation was greater within X. campestris pv. phaseoli than within X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strains. Implications for breeding for CBB resistance are discussed.