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Threadleaf sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.) is one ofthe most important dryland plants native to the grasslands of the northern Great Plains. Low seed production and poor germination are primary reasons making prairie restorations that include this species a challenge. The principal objective of this research was to investigate the influences of warm and cold pretreatments, moisture regime, and substrate type on germination. The work was conducted in a germination chamber with seeds (achenes) collected at two sites and in two years in western Nebraska. Average germination was relatively low with the common pretreatments of cold-wet alone (39% in 1998 and 17% in 1999) and warm-wet plus cold-wet pretreatment (33% in 1998 and 1999). Eight weeks of warm-dry pretreatment produced the greatest average germination (49% in 1998 and 41% in 1999). Warm-dry pretreatment may be a useful tool in preparing threadleaf sedge achenes for planting in prairie restorations.