U.S. Department of Agriculture: Agricultural Research Service, Lincoln, Nebraska


Date of this Version



Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2014. 59:279–97


Copyright 2014 by Annual Reviews.

This document is a U.S. government work and is not subject to copyright in the United States.



Previously regarded as minor nuisance pests, psocids belonging to the genus Liposcelis now pose a major problem for the effective protection of stored products worldwide. Here we examine the apparent biological and operational reasons behind this phenomenon and why conventional pest management seems to be failing. We investigate what is known about the biology, behavior, and population dynamics of major pest species to ascertain their strengths, and perhaps find weaknesses, as a basis for a rational pest management strategy. We outline the contribution of molecular techniques to clarifying species identification and understanding genetic diversity. We discuss progress in sampling and trapping and our comprehension of spatial distribution of these pests as a foundation for developing management strategies. The effectiveness of various chemical treatments and the availability and potential of nonchemical control methods are critically examined. Finally, we identify research gaps and suggest future directions for research.