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Susceptibility to carbaryl in six Mexican strains of the southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), was evaluated with the Food and Agricultural Organization larval packet test. Tick strains from the cattle fever tick quarantine zone in Texas were more susceptible to carbaryl than to coumaphos or diazinon. Compared with the susceptible reference (Gonzalez) strain, Mexican tick strains demonstrated 10.9Ð59.5-fold resistance to carbaryl. SigniÞcant cross-resistance was found between carbaryl and the organophosphate acaricides coumaphos and diazinon. Bioassay results with synergists suggested that metabolic detoxification mechanisms did not play a major role in carbaryl resistance. Resistance to carbaryl was likely conferred by insensitive acetylcholinesterase. The implications of carbaryl resistance in tick eradication and control also are discussed.