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Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them have been shown to have adverse effects against insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens.
Our research program is aimed at using fungal endophytes-mediated plant defense as a novel biological control mechanism against the coffee berry borer, the most devastating pest of coffee throughout the world. A survey of fungal endophytes in coffee plants from Hawaii, Colombia, Mexico, and Puerto Rico has revealed the presence of various genera of fungal entomopathogens, including Acremonium, Beauveria, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, and Paecilomyces. Two of these, B. bassiana and Clonostachys rosea, were tested against the coffee berry borer and were shown to be pathogenic. This paper reviews the possible mode of action of entomopathogenic fungal endophytes.