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Soil quality indicators and nematode abundance were characterized in a loessial soil under long-term conservation tillage to evaluate the effects of no-till, double-disk, chisel, and moldboard plow treatments. Indicators included soil electrical conductivity (EC), soil texture, soil organic matter (SOM), and total particulate organic matter (tPOM). Nematode abundance was positively correlated with EC, silt content, and total POM and negatively correlated with clay content. Clay content was the main source of variation among soil quality indicators and was negatively correlated with nematode abundance and most indicators. The gain in SOM in the no-till system amounted to 10887 kg over the 24 years or 454 kg ha-1 year-1, about half of this difference (45%) resulting from soil erosion in plowed soils. The balance of gain in SOM with no till (249 kg ha-1 year-1) was due to SOM sequestration with no till. No-till management reduced soil erosion, increased SOM, and enhanced soil physical characteristics.