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Coal combustion by-products can lower soil phosphorus (P) solubility, but few studies have assessed their effect on runoff P. A soil with elevated P content was amended with fluidized bed combustion ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum, and anthracite refuse ash at rates of 0–40 g kg−1 soil, and runoff from small plots was monitored over 3 years. In the first year, by-products lowered dissolved P in runoff by up to 47% below the untreated control; however, effects did not persist into the remaining years of the study. Total P losses were not significantly affected by coal combustion by-products, likely because of elevated particulate P losses. Water-extractable P was up to 40% less in treated soils than in untreated soils across the 3 years. Results demonstrate that although coal combustion by-products readily lower P solubility in soils, their impact on P losses in runoff can be undermined by erosional processes.