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Changes in animal nutrition, particularly essential dietary components, alter global gene expression patterns. Our goal is to identify molecular markers that serve as early indicators of the quality of insect culture media. Markers of deficient culture media will increase the efficiency of developing optimal systems for mass rearing beneficial insects and some pest species because decisions on culture media quality can be made without waiting through one or several life cycles. The objective of our current study is to discover molecular markers of essential dietary lipid deficiency in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. We reared groups of fruit flies separately on media either devoid of or supplemented with wheat germ oil (WGO) and analyzed gene expression in third instar larvae and F1 eggs using 2D electrophoresis. Gel densitometry revealed significant changes in expression levels of genes encoding eight proteins in larvae and 22 proteins in eggs. We identified these proteins by using mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF) and bioinformatic analyses of the protein sequences. Among these, we identified one gene encoding the receptor of activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) that increased in expression by 6.8-fold in eggs from adults that were reared as larvae on media supplemented with WGO. RACK1 is an essential component of at least three intracellular signal transduction pathways, making it a good molecular marker candidate of lipid deficiency in fruit flies and possibly many other insect species.