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Fusarium yellows, caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (Fob), can lead to significant yield losses in sugar beet. This fungus is variable in pathogenicity, morphology, host range and symptom production, and is not a well characterized pathogen on sugar beet. From 1998 to 2003, 86 isolates of F. oxysporum and 20 other Fusarium species from sugar beet, along with four F. oxysporum isolates from dry bean and five from spinach, were obtained from diseased plants and characterized for pathogenicity to sugar beet. A group of sugar beet Fusarium isolates from different geographic areas (including nonpathogenic and pathogenic F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. proliferatum and F. avenaceum), F. oxysporum from dry bean and spinach, and Fusarium DNA from Europe were chosen for phylogenetic analysis. Sequence data from β- tubulin, EF1α and ITS DNA were used to examine whether Fusarium diversity is related to geographic origin and pathogenicity. Parsimony and Bayesian MCMC analyses of individual and combined datasets revealed no clades based on geographic origin and a single clade consisting exclusively of pathogens. The presence of FOB and nonpathogenic isolates in clades predominately made up of Fusarium species from sugar beet and other hosts indicates that F. oxysporum f. sp. betae is not monophyletic.