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The blastoderm (fertilized ovum) and unfertilized germinal disc (UGD) of fresh laid eggs and eggs stored prior to incubation exhibit subtle but definable morphological variations. Such variations may lead to difficulty when attempting to determine true flock fertility based on the appearance of the blastoderm/UGD. The objectives of this study were to define and categorize such morphological variations and to determine whether sperm influence the frequency distribution of the different categories. Eleven categories of blastoderms were defined based on the relative density and appearance of the area alba, area pellucida, area opaca, and the periblast. The majority of the blastoderms were included in the first four categories. Unfertilized germinal discs were divided into six categories and were best differentiated from the blastoderms by the presence of vacuoles around its central dense area. They were also discernible from blastoderms based on their overall denser appearance. Differences in the frequency distribution of some of the UGD categories between virgin and inseminated hens may be due to the effect that supernumary sperm may have on the organization of the UGD (no fertilization but supernumary sperm present) or blastoderm (fertilized but failed to develop). It is recommended that before starting true fertility determinations during fresh egg breakouts, one should study the appearance of the UGD from virgin hens and then the blastoderm from inseminated hens. One then will learn to appreciate the subtle differences in shape and density of the blastoderm/UGD structural components.