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The biological basis of sustained fertility in broiler and turkey hens is their capacity to store sperm in the oviductal sperm storage tubules (SST) located in the uterovaginal junction. The objectives of this study were to determine if the numbers of SST varied between 4 strains of broiler breeders and determine the number of SST in the turkey before (less than 9 d of photostimulation) and after (up to 22 d of photostimulation and laying) photostimulation. No statistical differences were observed in SST numbers in the 4 strains of broilers examined or in turkey hens before and after the onset of egg production. The mean numbers of SST for broilers and turkeys were 4,893 and 30,566, respectively. We conclude that any differences between the fertility of the 4 broiler breeder strains examined cannot be explained by differences in SST numbers. However, differences in the duration of fertility between broilers and turkeys are, in part, related to their respective numbers of number of SST. Furthermore, we conclude that turkey SST are morphologically differentiated and functional before the onset of photostimulation and while the oviduct is morphologically undeveloped.