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Agroforestry is the deliberate introduction of multipurpose woody perennials (MWPs) into agroecosystems for the purpose of enhancing agricultural productivity, natural resource conservation, and human environments. This introduction promotes the biodiversity within the agroecosystem and thus its sustainability. This biodiversity is only a fraction of its potential due to the limited number and arrangement of the MWPs currently used in agroforestry plantings. An expanded effort in nursery and agroforestry research and development along with nursery production of diverse, adapted MWPs will need to be pursued to fully capitalize on the varied economic and ecological benefits of agroforestry.