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Studies of offshore and maritime incidents (accidents and near-misses) show that 80% or more involve human error. By investigating incidents, we can identify safety problems and take corrective actions to prevent future such events. While many offshore and maritime companies have incident investigation programs in place, most fall short in identifying and dealing with human errors. This paper discusses how to incorporate human factors into an incident investigation program. Topics include data collection and analysis and how to determine the types of safety interventions appropriate to safeguard against the identified risks. Examples are provided from three organizations that have established their own human factors investigation programs.