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A miniature microbial fuel cell (mini-MFC) is described that demonstrates high output power per device crosssection (2.0 cm2) and volume (1.2 cm3). Shewanella oneidensis DSP10 in growth medium with lactate and buffered ferricyanide solutions were used as the anolyte and catholyte, respectively. Maximum power densities of 24 and 10 mW/m2 were measured using the true surface areas of reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) and graphite felt (GF) electrodes without the addition of exogenous mediators in the anolyte. Current densities at maximum power were measured as 44 and 20 mA/m2 for RVC and GF, while short circuit current densities reached 32 mA/m2 for GF anodes and 100 mA/m2 for RVC. When the power density for GF was calculated using the cross sectional area of the device or the volume of the anode chamber, we found values (3 W/m2, 500 W/m3) similar to the maxima reported in the literature. The addition of electron mediators resulted in current and power increases of 30-100%. These power densities were surprisingly high considering a pure S. oneidensis culture was used. We found that the short diffusion lengths and high surface-area-to-chamber volume ratio utilized in the mini-MFC enhanced power density when compared to output from similar macroscopic MFCs.