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The prevalence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) resistance mutations present in HIV-1 subtype C pol and env regions of the proviral DNA was analyzed and compared from therapy-naive individuals before (Cohort A) and after (Cohort B) the availability of free ART in Zambia. Mutations present in sequences published in a previous study from Zambian ART-naive individuals infected with subtype C were analyzed using current parameters for the classification of ART drug resistance and compared with Cohorts A and B. No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing mutations present in the pol and env of these cohorts. However, an increase in the number of minor, borderline, or partial resistance mutations as well as the presence of major resistance mutations were observed in Cohort B. These results suggest there is an increasing trend of drug resistance-associated mutations that could be a result of the availability of free ART in Zambia. Moreover, the high prevalence of resistance mutations observed for maraviroc and vicriviroc in both cohorts may suggest a limited efficacy of entry inhibitors on HIV-1 subtype C.