Date of this Version
Journal of Infectious Diseases 206:9 (2012), pp. 1462-1468; doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis408
Multiple studies suggest that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are depleted and dysfunctional during human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infection, but little is known about pDCs in the gut—the primary site of virus replication. Here, we show that during SIV infection, pDCs were reduced 3-fold in the circulation and significantly upregulated the gut-homing marker α4β7, but were increased 4-fold in rectal biopsies of infected compared to naive macaques. These data revise the understanding of pDC immunobiology during SIV infection, indicating that pDCs are not necessarily depleted, but instead may traffic to and accumulate in the gut mucosa.