Date of this Version
Results from field studies and questionnaires mailed to commercial orchardists in Pennsylvania indicate use of orchards by wildlife poses management problems for orchardists, horticulturists, county extension agents, and wildlife managers. Data substantiate the detriment of wildlife to orchard trees and fruits as viewed by commercial orchardists. In addition, existing control methods are often inconsistent and ineffective and necessitate use of toxic substances which may have far-reaching environmental effects. Consequently, a need for sounder management of wildlife in orchards is apparent. Studies at The Pennsylvania State University have focused on: (1) surveys on the extent and severity of wildlife damage in orchards (Anthony and Fisher 1977), (2) relationships between soils and pine vole populations (Fisher 1975), (3) densities, movements, and activities of pine voles (Gettle 1975), and (4) population characteristics of meadow voles in relation to habitat type (Stump 1976). This paper summarizes the results of these studies and their relevance to damage control in orchards.