Date of this Version
Díaz-Martínez, V.; Orozco-Sandoval, J.; Manian, V.; Dhatt, B.K.;Walia, H. A Deep Learning Framework for Processing and Classification of Hyperspectral Rice Seed Images Grown under High Day and Night Temperatures. Sensors 2023, 23, 4370. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/s23094370
A framework combining two powerful tools of hyperspectral imaging and deep learning for the processing and classification of hyperspectral images (HSI) of rice seeds is presented. A seed-based approach that trains a three-dimensional convolutional neural network (3D-CNN) using the full seed spectral hypercube for classifying the seed images from high day and high night temperatures, both including a control group, is developed. A pixel-based seed classification approach is implemented using a deep neural network (DNN). The seed and pixel-based deep learning architectures are validated and tested using hyperspectral images from five different rice seed treatments with six different high temperature exposure durations during day, night, and both day and night. A stand-alone application with Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) for calibrating, preprocessing, and classification of hyperspectral rice seed images is presented. The software application can be used for training two deep learning architectures for the classification of any type of hyperspectral seed images. The average overall classification accuracy of 91.33% and 89.50% is obtained for seed-based classification using 3D-CNN for five different treatments at each exposure duration and six different high temperature exposure durations for each treatment, respectively. The DNN gives an average accuracy of 94.83% and 91% for five different treatments at each exposure duration and six different high temperature exposure durations for each treatment, respectively. The accuracies obtained are higher than those presented in the literature for hyperspectral rice seed image classification. The HSI analysis presented here is on the Kitaake cultivar, which can be extended to study the temperature tolerance of other rice cultivars.