Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation and Rate of Weight Gain during the First Trimester of Gestation in Beef Heifers Alters the Fetal Liver Amino Acid, Carbohydrate, and Energy Profile at Day 83 of Gestation
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Crouse, M.S.; McCarthy, K.L.; Menezes, A.C.B.; Kassetas, C.J.; Baumgaertner, F.; Kirsch, J.D.; Dorsam, S.; Neville, T.L.;Ward, A.K.; Borowicz, P.P.; et al. Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation and Rate of Weight Gain during the First Trimester of Gestation in Beef Heifers Alters the Fetal Liver Amino Acid, Carbohydrate, and Energy Profile at Day 83 of Gestation. Metabolites 2022, 12, 696. https://doi.org/10.3390/ metabo12080696
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding heifers a vitamin and mineral supplement and targeting divergent rates of weight gain during early gestation on the fetal liver amino acid, carbohydrate, and energy profile at d 83 of gestation. Seventy-two crossbred Angus heifers were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to one of four treatments comprising the main effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation (VTM or NOVTM) and feeding to achieve different rates of weight gain (low gain [LG] 0.28 kg/day vs. moderate gain [MG] 0.79 kg/day). Thirty-five gestating heifers with female fetuses were ovariohysterectomized on d 83 of gestation and fetal liver was collected and analyzed by reverse phase UPLC-tandem mass spectrometry with positive and negative ion mode electrospray ionization, as well as by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography UPLC-MS/MS with negative ion mode ESI for compounds of known identity. The Glycine, Serine, and Threonine metabolism pathway and the Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine metabolism pathway had a greater total metabolite abundance in the liver of the NOVTM-LG group and least in the VTM-LG group (p < 0.01). Finally, both the TCA Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation pathways within the Energy Metabolism superpathway were differentially affected by the main effect of VTM, where the TCA cycle metabolites were greater (p = 0.04) in the NOVTM fetal livers and the Oxidative Phosphorylation biochemicals were greater (p = 0.02) in the fetal livers of the VTM supplemented heifers. These data demonstrate that the majority of metabolites that are affected by rate of weight gain or vitamin/mineral supplementation are decreased in heifers on a greater rate of weight gain or vitamin/mineral supplementation.