Date of this Version
Menezes, A.C.B.; Dahlen, C.R.; McCarthy, K.L.; Kassetas, C.J.; Baumgaertner, F.; Kirsch, J.D.; Dorsam, S.T.; Neville, T.L.;Ward, A.K.; Borowicz, P.P.; et al. Fetal Hepatic Lipidome Is More Greatly Affected by Maternal Rate of Gain Compared with Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation at day 83 of Gestation. Metabolites 2023, 13, 175. https://doi.org/10.3390/ metabo13020175
Herein, we evaluated the hepatic lipid metabolic profiles of bovine fetuses in response to maternal vitamin and mineral supplementation (VMSUP; supplemented (VTM) or not (NoVTM)) and two different rates of gain (GAIN; low gain (LG), 0.28 kg/d, or moderate gain (MG), 0.79 kg/d). Crossbred Angus heifers (n = 35; initial BW = 359.5 ± 7.1 kg) were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, resulting in the following treatment combinations: NoVTM-LG (n = 9), NoVTM-MG (n = 9), VTM-LG (n = 9), and VTM-MG (n = 8). Heifers received their treatments until d 83 of gestation, when they were ovariohysterectomized. Fetuses were harvested and liver samples were analyzed via ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy to characterize lipid profiles and abundances. We identified 374 biochemicals/metabolites belonging to 57 sub-pathways of the lipid metabolism super-pathway. The majority of the biochemicals/metabolites (n = 152) were significantly affected by the main effect of GAIN. Maternal moderate rates of gain resulted in greater abundances (p ≤ 0.0001) of ω-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoate, docosapentaenoate, and docosahexaenoate) and lower abundances (p ≤ 0.0001) of ω-6 fatty acids. Further, MG resulted in the accumulation of several diacylglycerols and depletion of the majority of the monoacylglycerols. Concentrations of nearly all acylcarnitines (p ≤ 0.03) were decreased in VTM-LG fetal livers compared to all other treatment combinations, indicating a greater rate of complete oxidation of fatty acids. Levels of secondary bile acids were impacted by VMSUP, being greater (p ≤ 0.0048) in NoVTM than in VTM fetal livers. Moreover, NoVTM combined with lower rate of gain resulted in greater concentrations of most secondary bile acid biochemicals/metabolites. These data indicate that maternal diet influenced and altered fetal hepatic lipid composition in the first trimester of gestation. Maternal body weight gain exerted a greater influence on fetal lipid profiles than vitamin and mineral supplementation. Specifically, lower rate of gain (0.28 kg/d) resulted in an increased abundance of the majority of the biochemicals/metabolites identified in this study.