Animal Science Department


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Menezes, A.C.B.; Dahlen, C.R.; McCarthy, K.L.; Kassetas, C.J.; Baumgaertner, F.; Kirsch, J.D.; Dorsam, S.T.; Neville, T.L.;Ward, A.K.; Borowicz, P.P.; et al. Fetal Hepatic Lipidome Is More Greatly Affected by Maternal Rate of Gain Compared with Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation at day 83 of Gestation. Metabolites 2023, 13, 175. metabo13020175


Open access.


Herein, we evaluated the hepatic lipid metabolic profiles of bovine fetuses in response to maternal vitamin and mineral supplementation (VMSUP; supplemented (VTM) or not (NoVTM)) and two different rates of gain (GAIN; low gain (LG), 0.28 kg/d, or moderate gain (MG), 0.79 kg/d). Crossbred Angus heifers (n = 35; initial BW = 359.5 ± 7.1 kg) were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, resulting in the following treatment combinations: NoVTM-LG (n = 9), NoVTM-MG (n = 9), VTM-LG (n = 9), and VTM-MG (n = 8). Heifers received their treatments until d 83 of gestation, when they were ovariohysterectomized. Fetuses were harvested and liver samples were analyzed via ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy to characterize lipid profiles and abundances. We identified 374 biochemicals/metabolites belonging to 57 sub-pathways of the lipid metabolism super-pathway. The majority of the biochemicals/metabolites (n = 152) were significantly affected by the main effect of GAIN. Maternal moderate rates of gain resulted in greater abundances (p ≤ 0.0001) of ω-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoate, docosapentaenoate, and docosahexaenoate) and lower abundances (p ≤ 0.0001) of ω-6 fatty acids. Further, MG resulted in the accumulation of several diacylglycerols and depletion of the majority of the monoacylglycerols. Concentrations of nearly all acylcarnitines (p ≤ 0.03) were decreased in VTM-LG fetal livers compared to all other treatment combinations, indicating a greater rate of complete oxidation of fatty acids. Levels of secondary bile acids were impacted by VMSUP, being greater (p ≤ 0.0048) in NoVTM than in VTM fetal livers. Moreover, NoVTM combined with lower rate of gain resulted in greater concentrations of most secondary bile acid biochemicals/metabolites. These data indicate that maternal diet influenced and altered fetal hepatic lipid composition in the first trimester of gestation. Maternal body weight gain exerted a greater influence on fetal lipid profiles than vitamin and mineral supplementation. Specifically, lower rate of gain (0.28 kg/d) resulted in an increased abundance of the majority of the biochemicals/metabolites identified in this study.