Animal Science, Department of


Document Type


Date of this Version



npj Vaccines | ( 2024) 9:60.


Open access.


African Swine Fever (ASF) is a highly lethal viral disease in swine, with mortality rates approaching 100%. The disease has spread to many swine-producing countries, leading to significant economic losses and adversely impacting global food security. Extensive efforts have been directed toward developing effective ASF vaccines. Among the vaccinology approaches tested to date, liveattenuated virus (LAV) vaccines produced by rational deleting virulence genes from virulent African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) strains have demonstrated promising safety and efficacy in experimental and field conditions. Many gene-deleted LAV vaccine candidates have been generated in recent years. The virulence genes targeted for deletion from the genome of virulent ASFV strains can be categorized into four groups: Genes implicated in viral genome replication and transcription, genes from the multigene family located at both 5′ and 3′ termini, genes participating in mediating hemadsorption and putative cellular attachment factors, and novel genes with no known functions. Some promising LAV vaccine candidates are generated by deleting a single viral virulence gene, whereas others are generated by simultaneously deleting multiple genes. This article summarizes the recent progress in developing and characterizing gene-deleted LAV vaccine candidates.