Date of this Version
Neiman, E.L. and Manglitz, G.R. (1972) The biology and ecology of the bromegrass seed midge in Nebraska (Research Bulletin No. 252)
These studies indicate that smooth bromegrass, Bromus inermis Leyss, is the only host of the bromegrass seed midge, Stenodiplosis bromicola Marikovskiy and Agafonova, in Nebraska. The midge did not infest two common annual brome species under field conditions. The midge has been collected from all counties surveyed in Nebraska and seems to be widely distributed throughout the midwestern states. An apparently undescribed species of Tetrastichus (Hymenoptera: Eulophiclae) was observed to parasitize all stages of the bromegrass seed midge. Parasitism rates greater than 90% were observed. The parasite larvae do not kill the midge until damage to the bromegrass floret has occurred. However, a high parasite population may help to reduce the population of the bromegrass seed midge in succeeding generations.