Date of this Version
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 316: G453–G461, 2019
Fatty liver is the earliest response of the liver to excessive ethanol consumption. Central in the development of alcoholic steatosis is increased mobilization of nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFAs) to the liver from the adipose tissue. In this study, we hypothesized that ethanol-induced increase in ghrelin by impairing insulin secretion, could be responsible for the altered lipid metabolism observed in adipose and liver tissue. Male Wistar rats were fed for 5–8 wk with control or ethanol Lieber-DeCarli diet, followed by biochemical analyses in serum and liver tissues. In addition, in vitro studies were conducted on pancreatic islets isolated from experimental rats. We found that ethanol increased serum ghrelin and decreased serum insulin levels in both fed and fasting conditions. These results were corroborated by our observations of a significant accumulation of insulin in pancreatic islets of ethanol-fed rats, indicating that its secretion was impaired. Furthermore, ethanol-induced reduction in circulating insulin was associated with lower adipose weight and increased NEFA levels observed in these rats. Additionally, we found that increased concentration of serum ghrelin was due to increased synthesis and maturation in the stomach of the ethanol-fed rats. We also report that in addition to its effect on the pancreas, ghrelin can also directly act on hepatocytes via the ghrelin receptors and promote fat accumulation. In conclusion, alcohol-induced elevation of circulating ghrelin levels impairs insulin secretion. Consequently, reduced circulating insulin levels likely contribute to increased free fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue to liver, thereby contributing to hepatic steatosis.