Papers in the Biological Sciences

 

Date of this Version

2012

Citation

Life 2012, 2, 229-242

Comments

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license

Abstract

The habitat of metal respiring acidothermophilic lithoautotrophs is perhaps the most oxidizing environment yet identified. Geothermal heat, sulfuric acid and transition metals contribute both individually and synergistically under aerobic conditions to create this niche. Sulfuric acid and metals originating from sulfidic ores catalyze oxidative reactions attacking microbial cell surfaces including lipids, proteins and glycosyl groups. Sulfuric acid 􀁄􀁏􀁖􀁒􀀃 􀁓􀁕􀁒􀁐􀁒􀁗􀁈􀁖􀀃 􀁋􀁜􀁇􀁕􀁒􀁆􀁄􀁕􀁅􀁒􀁑􀀃 􀁇􀁈􀁋􀁜􀁇􀁕􀁄􀁗􀁌􀁒􀁑􀀃 􀁆􀁒􀁑􀁗􀁕􀁌􀁅􀁘􀁗􀁌􀁑􀁊􀀃 􀁗􀁒􀀃 􀁗􀁋􀁈􀀃 􀁉􀁒􀁕􀁐􀁄􀁗􀁌􀁒􀁑􀀃 􀁒􀁉􀀃 􀁅􀁏􀁄􀁆􀁎􀀃 􀂳􀁅􀁘􀁕􀁑􀁗􀂴􀀃 carbon. Oxidative reactions leading to abstraction of electrons is further impacted by heat through an increase in the proportion of reactant molecules with sufficient energy to react. Collectively these factors and particularly those related to metals must be overcome by thermoacidophilic lithoautotrophs in order for them to survive and proliferate. The necessary mechanisms to achieve this goal are largely unknown however mechanistics insights have been gained through genomic studies. This review focuses on the specific role of metals in this extreme environment with an emphasis on resistance mechanisms in Archaea.

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