Biological Systems Engineering


Date of this Version



International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012:7 1761–1779


© 2012 Yallapu et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.


Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the United States. It is estimated that 230,480 women were diagnosed with, and 39,520 women died from, breast cancer in 2011 in the United States.1 Basal-like breast cancer accounts for 15% of all breast cancers and has a poor prognosis. The majority of these cancers are referred to as triple-negative breast cancers because they do not over express estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2.2,3 Chemotherapy is an effective option to treat such cancers; however, chemotherapy is always associated with several sets of side effects.4–7 To overcome/avoid issues with side effects, natural compounds which are used as daily food ingredients may be an alternative option.