Buros Center for Testing


Date of this Version


Document Type



Published in Applied Measurement in Education 36:3 (2023), 193–215.



Copyright © 2023 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Used by permission


Since 1952, the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing has provided criteria for developing and evaluating educational and psychological tests and testing practice. Yet, we argue that the foundations, operations, and applications in the Standards are no longer sufficient to meet the current U.S. testing demands for fairness for all test takers. We propose racial justice extensions as principled ways to extend the Standards, through intentional actions focused on race and targeted at educational policies, processes, and outcomes in specific settings. To inform these extensions, we focus on four social-justice concepts: intersectionality derived from Black Feminist Theory; responsibility derived from moral philosophy; disparate impact derived from legal reasoning; and situatedness derived from social learning theories. We demonstrate these extensions and concepts in action by applying them to case studies of nursing licensure and placement testing.